EGCG / green tea and your skin
Skin/wound repair, fibrosis, anti-ageing and cellulite
The green tea extract EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) is the most important active molecule in green tea and responsible for most of its beneficial effects. EGCG is well researched for it's antioxidant, lipolytic, skin repair, anti-fibrotic and overall anti-ageing action.
For those reasons, EGCG is of great importance as active ingredient in anti-ageing, anti-cellulite, leg wellness, skin firming and under-eye creams [the Celluence® creams are the only cellulite creams in the world with high concentrations of 95%+ pure EGCG, plus 39x other natural anti-cellulite actives].
Below you can find a comprehensive review of all the research papers on EGCG / green tea extract and it's effect on ageing, skin health and cellulite.
EGCG: The science
EGCG is a great complement to the anti-inflammatory action of the steroid drug prednisolone...
...combating inflammation via multiple, complementary to glucocorticoids, pathways. Specifically, EGCG significantly inhibits ROS and IL-8 (prednisolone doesn't) and is equally effective in fibrinogen binding (conversely, EGCG does not inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-6 that respond to prednisolone).
[Source: Head-to-Head Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Performance of Known Natural Products In Vitro]
EGCG boosts brown fat thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis...
...evidenced by increased temperature, fat loss, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and AMPK
[Source: Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissues of diet-induced obese mice]
EGCG acts as a caloric restriction mimetic and boosts lipolysis...
...by upregulating adipocyte autophagic lipolysis, reducing adipocyte triglycerides by 25%, intracellular ATP levels by 49% and inducing AMPK phosphorylation, indicating an energy-depleted state. However, EGCG does not casue adiciyte browing.
[Source: Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Autophagic Lipolysis in Adipocytes]
Green tea extract EGCG can benefit hayfever by suppressing the inflammatory molecules...
...immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, and IL-6 and COX-2 [Source: Anti-inflammatory effect of epigallocatechin gallate in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis]
EGCG green tea extract prevents disease by protecting mitochondria...
...from oxidative stress, by helping regulate mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis, and by modulating cell apoptosis due to mitochondrial dysfunction [Source: Dietary Polyphenols and Mitochondrial Function: Role in Health and Disease]
epigallocatechin gallate in food protects fat cells from inflammation, helps fight cellulite
- Dietary phytochemicals called polyphenols are known potent antioxidants that protect body tissues from free radical damage and consequent inflammation.
- Inflammation and oxidative damage are key components of cellulite, as well as diabetes and several other so-called civilisation diseases, such as heart disease and arthritis.
- Recent research has now looked into 28 polyphenols (such as hesperidin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin) and concluded that those polyphenols protect fat cells from both oxidative damage and inflammation, by reducing inflammatory hormones, such as IL-6.
- This practically means that orally taken polyphenols (either as foods or as supplements) can be used in the fight against fat tissue inflammation for the prevention of diabetes and cellulite.
- Polyphenols may also be used with local application in the fight against cellulite as active ingredients in an anti-cellulite cream. Naturally, the more of those polyphenols are present in the cream the better results are to be expected, due to a synergistic effect of using multiple ingredients.
- Source: Evaluation of antioxidant properties of major dietary polyphenols and their protective effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress
- Abstract: "Obesity has been associated with a marked risk of metabolic diseases and requires therapeutic strategies. Changes in redox status with increased oxidative stress in adipose tissue have been linked with obesity-related disorders. Thus, the biological effect of antioxidants such as polyphenols is of high interest. We aimed to measure antioxidant capacities of 28 polyphenols representative of main dietary phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and curcuminoids. Then, 14 molecules were selected for the evaluation of their effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress. Analysis of reducing and free radical-scavenging capacities of compounds revealed antioxidant properties related to their structure, with higher activities for flavonoids such as quercetin and epicatechin. Their effects on preadipocytes' viability also depended on their structure, dose and time of exposure. Interestingly, most of the compounds exhibited a protective effect on preadipocytes exposed to oxidative stress, by reversing H₂O₂-induced anti-proliferative action and reactive oxygen species production. Polyphenols also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on preadipocytes exposed to H₂O₂ by reducing IL-6 secretion. Importantly, such antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed in co-exposition (polyphenol and prooxidant during 24 h) or pretreatment (polyphenol during 24 h, then prooxidant for 24 h) conditions. Moreover, compounds protected erythrocytes from AAPH radical-induced lysis. Finally, these results led to demonstrate that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols may depend on structure, dose, time of exposure and cell conditioning with oxidative stress. Such findings should be considered for a better understanding of polyphenols' benefits in strategies aiming to prevent obesity-related diseases."
- Dietary polyphenols are beneficial plant chemicals found in fruit, herbs and vegetables, which are known primarily from their antioxidant action
- Most importantly, however, different polyphenols also exert anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, metabolic and anti-obesity action on the human body
- In fact, scientists now know that it is not the antioxidant action that is important in polyphenols but the action on inflammation and metabolism
- EGCG (from green tea), resveratrol (found in berries), quercetin (found in onions), curcumin (from turmeric), catechins (in cocoa), epicatechins (in pine bark and grape seeds), proanthocyanidins (e.g. in cranberries), and myricetin (found in fruit) are some of the most "famous" polyphenols
- A review published in 2014 reports that thousands of cell, tissue, animal and human studies in the last few years have shown the beneficial effects of polyphenols on health, and specifically in metabolic disorders and obesity
- Cell studies show that dietary polyphenols fight fat in multiple ways. They:
- Reduce the life span of adipocytes (fat cells)
- Reduce fat cell growth
- Inhibit the capacity of fat cells to accumulate fat
- Reduce fat cell proliferation
- Stimulate lipolysis (fat breakdown and release from fat cells)
- Boost energy expenditure / fat oxidation ("fat burning") outside fat cells
- Stimulate thermogenesis (fat burning inside fat cells)
- Inhibit adipose tissue inflammation within and outside adipose tissue
- Fight oxidative damage within and outside fat tissue
- Fight metabolic dysfunction within and outside adipose tissue
- Reduce high glucose levels, triglycerides, cholesterol and glycation
- "Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed polyphenols have a pronounced effect on obesity as shown by lower body weight, fat mass and triglycerides through enhancing energy expenditure and fat utilization, and modulating glucose homeostasis"
- "On the other hand, human studies are more limited and are more inconsistent about the anti-obesity impact of dietary polyphenols probably due to the various study designs and lengths, variation among subjects (age, gender, ethnicity), chemical forms of the dietary polyphenols used and confounding factors such as other weight-reducing agents", the study authors state
- However, our experience of reviewing such studies in the last decade shows that polyphenols are more effective on cell cultures, tissues and animals are more effective simply because of the much higher dosage than used on humans, which is quite often one or two orders of magnitude greater
- Nevertheless, the general trend with the use of polyphenols in human trials is towards a healthier metabolic profile and reduced fat accumulation, obesity and it's complications, even with normal, dietary intakes or with reasonably increased intakes in the form of supplements etc.
- However, polyphenols could be much more beneficial at local level, i.e. for spot fat / cellulite reduction than it is for whole body level. This is because whole body weight loss depends too much on food intake and exercise and because very high intake of polyphenols at whole body level is practically impossible and possibly unhealthy
- Clearly, high-concentration topical application, similar to that seen in cell, tissue and animal studies makes much more sense, and is a trend seen in quality cosmeceuticals recently, including anti-ageing and cellulite creams
- In all cases, more "randomised controlled trials are warranted to reconcile the discrepancies between preclinical efficacies and inconclusive clinic outcomes of these polyphenols", as the study authors report.
- Source: Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity.
- Abstract: The prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past three decades both in the United States and worldwide. Recent studies have shown the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Here, we evaluated the impact of commonly consumed polyphenols, including green tea catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallates, resveratrol and curcumin, on obesity and obesity-related inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrated that these dietary polyphenols reduce viability of adipocytes and proliferation of preadipocytes, suppress adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation, stimulate lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, and reduce inflammation. Concomitantly, the polyphenols modulate signaling pathways including the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma activator 1-alpha, sirtuin 1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, uncoupling proteins 1 and 2, and nuclear factor-κB that regulate adipogenesis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses. Animal studies strongly suggest that commonly consumed polyphenols described in this review have a pronounced effect on obesity as shown by lower body weight, fat mass and triglycerides through enhancing energy expenditure and fat utilization, and modulating glucose hemostasis. Limited human studies have been conducted in this area and are inconsistent about the antiobesity impact of dietary polyphenols probably due to the various study designs and lengths, variation among subjects (age, gender, ethnicity), chemical forms of the dietary polyphenols used and confounding factors such as other weight-reducing agents. Future randomized controlled trials are warranted to reconcile the discrepancies between preclinical efficacies and inconclusive clinic outcomes of these polyphenols.
- There is increasing evidence that the green tea chemical epigallocatechin gallate, the most important green tea catechin, can fight fat and obesity
- This recent review reveals that the most probable mechanism by which green tea reduces fat accumulation in fat cells and boosts fat release from them, is it's activation of the protein AMPK.
- AMPK is now well known for it's lipolytic (fat release stimulation), anti-lipogenic (fat accumulation inhibition) and anti-adipogenic action (new fat cell creation inhibition).
- EGCG is one of the many natural chemicals that can help reduce fat and cellulite, as part of a healthy diet and exercise regime.
- Source: Beneficial Effects of Tea and the Green Tea Catechin Epigallocatechin-3-gallate on Obesity.
- Abstract: Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against cancer, obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and dental caries. The catechin (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has shown the highest biological activity among green tea catechins (GTCs) in most of the studies. While several epidemiological studies have shown the beneficial effects of tea and GTCs on obesity, some studies have failed to do this. In addition, a large number of interventional clinical studies have shown these favorable effects, and cellular and animal experiments have supported those findings, and revealed the underlying anti-obesity mechanisms. One of the mechanisms is enhanced cellular production of reactive oxygen species, which is mediated through the pro-oxidant action of EGCG, leading to the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which suppresses gene and protein expression of enzymes and transcription factors involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis, and stimulates those involved in lipolysis. Recently, scientific evidence supporting the beneficial anti-obesity effects of green tea and GTCs has been increasing. However, future investigations are still required to clarify the reasons for the inconsistent results reported in the human studies; to achieve this, careful adjustment of confounding factors will be required.
- Source: Inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells.
- Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the attenuating effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on proliferation and lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells, with a focus on the duration of EGCG treatment. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay and diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG on 3T3-L1 cells was analyzed by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and Oil red O staining. Western blot analysis was used to detect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and phosphorylation of its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and expression of insulin (INS) receptor, INS receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and adipocyte marker proteins. RESULTS: Exposure to EGCG during the early period of adipogenesis (7 days) was sufficient to prevent lipid accumulation. During this period, EGCG greatly decreased expression of the adipocyte marker proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2) and liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha. Furthermore, EGCG significantly induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which led to AMPK activation, and these effects were eliminated by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Also, EGCG increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of INS receptor and INS-1 with increasing incubation time. In contrast, EGCG treatment did not alter glycerol release in the presence or absence of 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA), indicating that EGCG had no effect on lipolysis. DISCUSSION: Our data demonstrate that EGCG decreased cell viability and inhibited differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a manner dependent on the duration of treatment. Also, we showed that inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by EGCG was associated with decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity accompanied by a strong inhibition of PPARgamma2-induced transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by EGCG involved generation of ROS and activation of AMPK.
- Source: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits angiotensin II-induced C-reactive protein generation through interfering with the AT1-ROS-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in hepatocytes.
- Abstract: Inflammation plays a key role in many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases. As a representative inflammatory molecule, C-reactive protein (CRP) is mainly produced in the liver. Hepatic CRP plays a direct role in the inflammatory hepatic diseases and in development of atherosclerosis when entering into the blood circulation. In the present study, we observed the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on Ang II-induced CRP generation in hepatocytes and the molecular mechanism. Rats were delivered with the subcutaneous infusion of Ang II and/or intragastric administration of EGCG for 7 days. Hepatocytes were pretreated with EGCG before stimulation with Ang II in vitro. CRP level in the serum and liver was determined with ELISA and the immunohistochemical staining. RNA and protein expressions were determined using RT-PCR and Western blot. The in vivo experiment confirmed that EGCG reduced not only CRP generation in the liver of Ang II-infused rats but also serum CRP level. The in vitro results showed that pretreatment of hepatocytes with EGCG inhibited Ang II-induced mRNA and protein expression of CRP in a concentration-dependent manner. Further study exhibited that EGCG downregulated AT1 expression, attenuated Ang II-activated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and upregulated Ang II-inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression in vitro and in vivo. In addition, EGCG decreased Ang II-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hepatocytes. These demonstrate that EGCG is able to inhibit Ang II-induced CRP generation by interfering with AT1-ROS-ERK1/2 signal pathway in hepatocytes, which provides the new evidence and mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of EGCG.
- Source: Combinatorial epigenetic mechanisms and efficacy of early breast cancer inhibition by nutritive botanicals.
- Abstract: AIM: Aberrant epigenetic events are important contributors to the pathogenesis of different types of cancers and dietary botanicals with epigenetic properties can influence early cancer development leading to cancer prevention effects. We sought to investigate potential combinatorial effects of bioactive dietary components including green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and broccoli sprouts (BSp) on neutralizing epigenetic aberrations during breast tumorigenesis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The combinatorial effects were evaluated in a breast cancer transformation cellular system and breast cancer mouse xenografts. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Combined treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate in GTPs and sulforaphane in BSp resulted in a synergistic inhibition of breast cancer cellular growth. Further studies revealed this combination led to genome-wide epigenetic alterations. Combinatorial diets significantly inhibited tumor growth in breast cancer mouse xenografts. Collectively, these studies indicate that combined GTPs and BSp are highly effective in inhibiting early breast cancer development by, at least in part, regulating epigenetic mechanisms.
- Source: Prevention of abdominal aortic aneurysm progression by oral administration of green tea polyphenol in a rat model.
- Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Inflammation-mediated elastin destruction in the aortic medial layer is related to progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea polyphenols, reportedly increases elastin synthesis in vitro and may possess anti-inflammatory effects. We used a rat model to investigate whether EGCG could prevent AAA progression. METHODS: AAA was induced with administration of intraluminal elastase and extraluminal CaCl2 in male rats. Rats were randomly divided into a control group (n = 30) and an EGCG group (n = 30). In the EGCG group, an EGCG solution (20 mg/d) was administered orally to each rat from 2 weeks before AAA induction and continued 4 weeks beyond induction. RESULTS: The abdominal aortic diameter was significantly smaller in the EGCG group than in the control group on day 28 (2.9 ± 0.2 vs 2.3 ± 0.1 mm; P < .0001). The medial layer wall thickness and elastin content were significantly greater in the EGCG group than in the control group on day 28 (68.4 ± 13.6 vs 46.7 ± 13.4 μm [P < .001] and 20.3 ± 4.6 vs 9.5 ± 3.6% [P < .0001], respectively). Gene expression levels of tropoelastin and lysyl oxidase were significantly higher in the EGCG group immediately before AAA induction, indicating promoted elastoregeneration by EGCG administration (tropoelastin: 0.59 ± 0.36 control vs 1.24 ± 0.36 EGCG [P < .05], lysyl oxidase: 0.77 ± 0.45 control vs 1.34 ± 0.4 EGCG [P < .05]) (fold increase). Gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were significantly downregulated in the EGCG group (1.82 ± 0.71 vs 0.97 ± 0.59 [P < .05] and 3.91 ± 3.24 vs 0.89 ± 0.59 [P < .05], respectively). On day 7, gene expression levels and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 were significantly lower in the EGCG group (1.41 ± 0.86 vs 0.51 ± 0.42 [P < .05] and 1.00 ± 0.17 vs 0.29 ± 0.12 [P < .0001], respectively), whereas gene expression levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 were significantly higher in the EGCG group (0.96 ± 0.11 vs 1.14 ± 0.09; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: EGCG attenuated AAA progression in a rat model by preserving the aortic thickness and elastin content of the medial layer through regeneration of elastin, as mediated by anti-inflammatory effects, and subsequent reduction of matrix metalloproteinase activity.
- Source: (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) attenuates the hemodynamics stimulated by caffeine through decrease of catecholamines release.
- Abstract: A human study of the effects on hemodynamics of caffeine and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) was performed. Caffeine tablets (200 mg) were orally administered to healthy males aged between 25 and 35 years 30 min after oral administration of EGCG tablets (100 and 200 mg). The increase in BP induced by caffeine was inhibited when co-administrated with EGCG. We found that caffeine slightly decreased heart rate (HR) in the volunteers. Although EGCG enhanced HR reduction, the effect was not significant. In addition, caffeine increased blood catecholamine levels, but EGCG inhibited the increase in noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine levels induced by caffeine. Whether EGCG decreases the elevated HR and systolic perfusion pressure, and ventricular contractility induced by adrenergic agonists in the isolated rat heart was investigated. The modified Krebs-Henseleit solution was perfused through a Langendorff apparatus to the isolated hearts of rats. HR, systolic perfusion pressure, and developed maximal rates of contraction (+dP/dtmax) and relaxation (-dP/dtmax) were increased by epinephrine (EP) and isoproterenol (IP). In contrast, EGCG decreased the elevated HR, systolic perfusion pressure, and left ventricular ±dp/dtmax induced by EP and/or IP. In conclusion, EGCG could attenuate the hemodynamics stimulated by caffeine through decreasing catecholamine release.
- Source: Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation to Adipogenic Lineage.
- Abstract: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells. Hence, with this aim, the present study was designed to determine the effect of EGCG on mouse mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells differentiation into adipocytes. To understand this process, the cells were incubated with varying concentrations of EGCG (1 μM, 5 μM, 10 μM, 50 μM) in the presence and /or absence of adipogenic medium for 9 days. The results demonstrated that, EGCG inhibited the cells proliferation, migration and also prevented their differentiation to adipogenic lineage. These effects were analyzed through the inhibition of wound healing activity, reduction in Oil red O stained cells, together with decrease in the expression of Adipisin gene following EGCG treatment. These observations thus demonstrated anti-adipogenic effect of EGCG with a possibility of its role in the therapeutic intervention of obesity.
- Source: The effects of tetrahydrocurcumin and green tea polyphenol on the survival of male C57BL/6 mice.
- Abstract: The effect of feeding of two different antioxidants, tetrahydrocurcumin (TC) and green tea polyphenols (PPs) on the survival of male C57BL/6 mice was examined. Mice that started to receive diets containing TC (0.2%) at the age of 13 months had significantly longer average life spans (days, mean +/- SD) than control mice (797.6 +/- 151.2 vs.882 +/- 154.6, both n = 50, controls vs. TC treated, plus 11.7%, P < 0.01). The 10% longest survival was also significantly greater in TC-treated mice (plus 6.5%, P < 0.01). In contrast, in mice that started to receive TC in their 19th month of life, no significant difference from the control mice was found for either the average life span or the 10% longest survival. In mice that received water containing PPs (80 mg/l), the average life span was also significantly longer than in the control mice (801 +/- 121.5 vs. 852.7 +/- 88.2, plus 6.4%, P < 0.05), although the 10% longest survival was not significantly different from that in the control mice (P > 0.05). The body weights of the TC (but not PP) fed mice, were slightly (2-4%) but significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the values for the corresponding ages in the control mice in the first six months of treatment. Thereafter, the difference in average body weight between the control and the TC-fed animals was totally lost. Although an additional contribution of an unintended slight decrease in food intake due to TC feeding (suspected due to the difference in body weight) is not excluded, we suggest that the feeding of nutritional antioxidants such as TC and PPs may have the potential to beneficially modify the life spans of animals.
- Source: Protective potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against benign prostatic hyperplasia in metabolic syndrome rats.
- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major catechin in green tea with functions of antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and attenuating metabolic syndrome. In this study, rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied with metabolic syndrome was induced by fed on high-fat diet for 12 weeks combined with testosterone injection (10mg/kg/d) from 9th to 12th weeks. EGCG was orally given from 9th to 12th weeks. Finally, the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, prostate weight, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, and prostatic expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) were evaluated. It was found that EGCG significantly decreased the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, IGFs, and inflammatory cytokines, normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as increased the prostatic expression of IGFBP-3 and PPARs. These results indicated that EGCG was able to exert anti-BPH activities in metabolic syndrome rats.
- Source: The green tea molecule EGCG inhibits Zika virus entry.
- Abstract: During ZIKV the outbreak in Brazil it was observed an increase of almost 20 times the number of reported cases of microcephaly in newborn babies. There is no vaccine or approved drug available for the treatment and prevention of infections by this virus. EGCG, a polyphenol present in green tea has been shown to have an antiviral activity for many viruses. In view of the need for the development of a drug against a Brazilian strain of ZIKV, we assessed the effect of EGCG on ZIKV entry in Vero E6 cells. The drug was capable of inhibiting the virus entry by at least 1-log (>90%) at higher concentrations (>100μM). The pre-treatment of cells with EGCG did not show any effect on virus attachment. This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of EGCG on ZIKV indicating that this drug might be possibility to be used for prevention of Zika virus infections.
- Source: Phytochemicals in regulating fatty acid β-oxidation: Potential underlying mechanisms and their involvement in obesity and weight loss.
- Abstract: Excessive accumulation of fat as the result of more energy intake and less energy expenditure is known as obesity. Lipids are essential components in the human body and are vital for maintaining homeostasis and physiological as well as cellular metabolism. Fatty acid synthesis and catabolism (by fatty acid oxidation) are normal part of basic fuel metabolism in animals. Fatty acids are degraded in the mitochondria by a biochemical process called β-oxidation in which two-carbon fragments are produced in each cycle. The increase in fatty acid oxidation is positively correlated with body mass index. Although healthy life style, avoiding Western diet, dieting and strenuous exercise are the commonly used methods to lose weight, they are not considered a permanent solution in addition to risk attenuation of in basal metabolic rate (BMR). Pharmacotherapy offers benefits of weight loss by altering the satiety and lowering absorption of fat from the food; however, its side effects may outweigh the benefits of weight loss. Alternatively, dietary phytochemicals and natural health products offer great potential as an efficient weight loss strategy by modulating lipid metabolism and/or increasing BMR and thermogenesis. Specifically, polyphenols such as citrus flavonoids, green tea epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, capsaicin and curcumin, have been reported to increase lipolysis and induce fatty acid β-oxidation through modulation of hormone sensitive lipase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, carnitine acyl transferase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1. In this review article, we discuss selected phytochemicals in relation to their integrated functionalities and specific mechanisms for weight loss.
- Caffeine may have positive effects when used locally, as part of an anti- cellulite cream, and generally mixed or negative effects if taken orally, as a supplement or caffeinated drink, such as coffee, tea etc. We have analysed those effects of caffeine in detail on separate articles on this website.
- However, decaffeinated drinks, such as coffee and tea, and low-caffeine drinks, such as cocoa drinks, do have multiple beneficial effects against ageing and cellulite, without any of the potential side effects of caffeine. This is due to the high amount of polyphenols and other phytochemicals contained in those drinks, such as flavanols (coffee and cocoa), procyanidins (coffee), tannins (tea and coffee), chlorogenic acid (coffee) and catechins / epicatechins (cocoa and tea).
- Polyphenols act as anti-inflammatory, anti-glycation, anti-adipogenic / lipolytic, blood vessel / circulation supporting and skin firming agents. All these actions have a profound effect on both ageing and cellulite. Due to the absence of caffeine there is no limit to the consumption of these drinks (within reason, of course), so they can be used as effective anti-ageing / anti-cellulite drinks. I know of women who consume 15 cups of decaf green tea a day and their antioxidant levels,are really high without any side effects or other problems.
- Decaf green tea, decaf tea and decaf coffee all contain no caffeine and high amounts of polyphenols. Cocoa does contain some caffeine, so excessive consumption should be avoided. However, you can always buy high polyphenol cocoa (also known as high antioxidant) cocoa which will allow you to receive maximum polyphenols with minimum caffeine.
- I see no need to take green coffee, cocoa or green tea supplements, as you can take quite significant amounts of antioxidant naturally and at the same time enjoy the taste of those drinks several times a day. However, if you do hate tea, coffee or cocoa, that is an option you may wish to explore.
- However, please note that if you suffer from low blood pressure or similar vascular problems you must be careful in your use of cocoa, especially the high antioxidant variety, as it effectively reduces blood pressure and may lead to dizziness. Always consult a doctor if unsure about changes in your diet and taking supplements.
- Of course, existing cellulite will need more than healthy eating and exercise to be significantly reduced, but drinking high polyphenol decaffeinated drinks will definitely enhance the results of any treatment you receive or cream you use.
- Since we started using green coffee, cocoa and green tea extracts at our clinic for our anti-cellulite and anti-ageing treatments, results have significantly increased. Our creams also include multiple sources of polyphenols, in addition to high purity coffee, cocoa and tea extracts, for maximum results. And of course, we always recommend high polyphenol drinks and also foods (such as berries) to all our clients.