How escin improves vein tone, blood circulation, water retention and oedema and fights cellulite

  • Escin (aescin) is one of the three actives contained in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) extract responsible for it's well-known action on chronic venous insufficiency (clinical water retention / oedema), haemorrhoids, post-operative oedema and cellulite (water retention is an important aspect of cellulite).
  • Chronic venous insufficiency is a disease from which "10–15% of adult men and 20–25% of women suffer. It reflects more than a ‘cosmetic problem’ because many patients require hospital and/or surgical  treatment and this disease leads to a high degree of suffering and a high economic cost for society".
  • Furthermore, cellulite affects more than 80% of women above the age of 30 and although cellulite is only a cosmetic condition, the majority of women seek solutions on how to prevent or reduce it.
  • There is plenty of scientific literature supporting the effectiveness and safety of escin, one of which found it has the same efficacy in oedema as compression therapy, after just 8 weeks of treatment - without the inconvenience of compression bandages / garments.
  • In another double-blind, placebo-controlled study "oral treatment for 2–8 weeks with 100-150mg/day of escin led to a significant reduction in leg volume and symptoms (pain, fatigue, sensation of tension, itching) compared to placebo."
  • Additionally, escin is very well tolerated and has been used in massive studies with tens thousands of patients with excellent results and safety. 
  • According to a review of all the major research papers on escin, this natural chemical possesses "clearcut anti-oedematous, anti-inflammatory and venotonic properties" via a "wide ranging mechanism of therapeutic activity".
  • Specifically, escin allows improved response to calcium ions which raises venous tension and contractions (i.e. better vein tone); it releases the prostaglandine PGF2-alpha from veins; it antagonises histamine; it prevents leukocyte activation / inflammation and prevents hypoxia-related reactions, such as reduction in cell energy levels / ATP.
  • Escin also inhibits the enzymes elastase and hyaluronidase and thereby protects elastin and hyaluronic acid from damage. As a result, blood vessels are "sealed", preventing the leakage of water into the tissues and the consequent water retention / oedema.
  • In summary, escin is a valuable, safe and effective natural vein-toning and circulation-enhancing active against water retention, oedema and cellulite. Creams with a high concentration of purified escin, especially in combination with esculoside and proanthocyanidin (the other two actives in horse chestnut) and with other synergistic actives, can provide valuable help with cellulite, heavy / painful / tense legs and water retention.
  • Source: Aescin: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic profile,
  • Excerpt: "In inflammatory conditions, as well as during blood stasis, resulting in decreased oxygen supply, a reduction in ATP content may occur due to lowered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This results in a cascade of metabolic events: release of prostaglandins and PAF, neutrophil recruitment, adherence and activation, all leading to venous stasis and oedema in the case of varicose disease. Aescin can well antagonize the reduction in ATP content and increased phospholipase A2 responsible for the release of precursors of inflammatory mediators. There is, furthermore, a reduced neutrophil adherence/activation, all resulting in the protection of veins and reduced oedema... The therapeutic efficacy, as shown in the international literature, includes studies published in top ranked journals, and is well supported by a large number of randomized controlled studies. In one trial aescin was shown to be as effective as compression therapy as an alternative to medical treatment for CVI."
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Mylenne Klass's high intensity exercise workout advice

  • Myleene Klass, known for her fantastic figure, was recently featured in the news, sharing her advice on how to have maintain a firm body
  • Myleene was quoted of saying "I like high-intensity stuff - boxing, skipping which is fantastic for burning fat", to which I could not agree more. The same effort made on a high intensity workout have a higher effect on your metabolism than a low intensity workout, such as yoga or walking, even if the same amount of calories spent.
  • Myleene also suggested "lateral squat jumps to increase the leanness of your legs", which, however, is wrong. It is physically impossible to lose fat locally by exercising a specific muscle.
  • This means that lateral leg squats may be a good idea to tone up the muscles of your legs, but they won't do anything to "dramatically improve the leanness" (or fattiness) of your legs - not more than exercising your arms or other body parts for that matter.
  • Local fat reduction on the legs or anywhere else can only happen with a good localised treatment and/or cream, always in combination with diet and exercise, of course.
  • Source: Secrets of an A-list body: How to get Myleene Klass's fantastic legs,


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The antioxidant ellagic acid halts fat accumulation

  • Ellagic acid is a natural polyphenol found in various fruits and vegetables and used in many anti-ageing creams
  • Now a new study has found that ellagic acid inhibits fat accumulation in fat cells during adipogenesis (fat cell growth and maturation)
  • Specifically, ellagic acid reduced the proteins PPAR-gamma and C/EBP-alpha and as a result it stopped fat accumulation and the growth of fat cells
  • These results are a good indication of ellagic acid's potential as an anti-cellulite cream active, in addition to it being a popular natural active of anti-ageing creams for more than a decade
  • Source: Ellagic acid suppresses lipid accumulation by suppressing early adipogenic events and cell cycle arrest,


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The horse chestnut extract escin (aescin) is as effective as compression garments for the treatment of water retention and heaviness on the legs

  • Water retention on the legs and heavy legs due to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) affects a large proportion of women, impairing their occupational capacity and quality of life and also contributing to the aesthetic condition of cellulite.
  • Compression tights and other garments are popular aids against CVI of the legs but most women dislike using them, especially in the summer, when water retention is at its worst.
  • Nutritional supplements based on rutin, hesperidin, escin, esculoside and several other natural extracts are also used, but are not very popular due to them not being very well known by the public or being perceived as less effective than the strong mechanical compression offered by compression tights.
  • However, a study which compared the efficacy in oedema reduction and the safety of compression stockings (class II) and the horse chestnut seed extract escin (100mg/day), has found that the two methods are of equivalent effectiveness after 12 weeks. Escin, however, does not burden the patient with the discomfort of the compression tights, offering a superior quality of life.
  • Specifically the randomised, partially blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel study involved 240 patients with chronic venous insufficiency treated over a period of 12 weeks. At the conclusion of the study lower leg volume decreased on average by 44 mL with escin and 47 mL with compression therapy, while it increased by 9.8 mL with placebo after 12 weeks of therapy.
  • The researchers concluded that "Significant oedema reductions were achieved by HCSE (p = 0.005) and compression (p = 0.002) compared to placebo, and the two therapies were shown to be equivalent (p = 0.001). Both HCSE and compression therapy were well tolerated and no serious treatment-related events were reported."
  • Escin, together with it's related horse chestnut extract esculoside are effective and safe plant chemicals against water retention - and consequently cellulite - and are ideal as ingredients in nutritional supplement and anti-cellulite / heavy leg creams.
  • Source: Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency,
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How dietary fat leads to growth - without human growth hormone

  • It has long been observed that increased fat intake in teens leads to increased body height without human growth hormone, but the mechanism by which occurs has not become known.
  • However, a recent study has shown that fat cells secrete growth factors which stimulate bone growth, and therefore, body height.
  • Specifically, scientists have cultured fat cells and then added an extract of their secretions to a metatarsal bone culture. The result was significantly increased metatarsal bone elongation which was attributed to the increased expression of "growth and differentiation factor 5" (GDF)-5 and the consequent stimulation of the GDF-5 receptor (bone morphogenetic protein receptor; BMPR1).
  • In conclusion, the researchers state that "adipocytes may stimulate bone growth and suggest an additional explanation to the growth-without-growth-hormone phenomenon", that is observed with increased fat intake in teens.
  • Source: Growth without growth hormone: can growth and differentiation factor 5 be the mediator,
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How epilactose, a lactose derivative boosts thermogenesis and fat reduction

  • Epilactose is a non-digestible lactose derivative that is formed in small quantities when heating milk. It possesses prebiotic properties, i.e. it helps the growth and function of beneficial (probiotic) bacteria in the gut.
  • In a recent study it has been found that epilactose prevents fat cell size increase, fat accumulation and weight gain caused  by a high fat diet, without affecting food intake.
  • It was found that epilactose achieves this by boosting thermogenesis, i.e. the oxidation of fat for the production of heat, rather than usable energy, in the muscles and fat cells.
  • UCP-1, the protein that causes cells to burn fat for heat (thermogenesis) was increased by a factor of 2x in the muscles and by a factor of 1.3x in brown fat cells. Furthermore, epilactose also reduces fat tissue inflammation caused by the high fat diet.
  • The researchers attribute this change to propionic acid, a short chain fatty acid secreted by bacteria in the gut that metabolise epilactose (epilactose is a sugar that can not be digested by animals and therefore it is metablised by bacteria in the gut; bacteria use the epilactose for energy and secrete propionic acid in return).
  • In summary, the researchers concluded that epilactose increases UCP-1 in muscles and brown adipose tissue and enhances whole-body energy expenditure, leading to effective prevention of obesity and metabolic disorders.
  • At the moment epilactose can not be found as a supplement or food additive, but due to it's prebiotic action and documented promise as a fat loss agent, it may become a popular potential supplement in the near future.
  • Source: Supplemental epilactose prevents metabolic disorders through uncoupling protein-1 induction in the skeletal muscle of mice fed high-fat diets,
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How a virus can make you fat

  • It has been well-known for some time that certain adenoviruses can cause obesity in humans, as well as animals. 
  • According to a paper published recently, three human adenovirus types, Ad5, Ad36 and Ad37 are linked to increased adiposity and weight gain, especially in children.
  • One of them, Ad36 is the most extensively studied adipogenic adenovirus with 30% of overweight/obese children and adults carying the virus. However, about 15-20% of lean individuals also carry the virus, which means that not all people are affected: some are more vulnerable than others, depending on their genetics and the state of their immune system. 
  • Ad36 is known to cause fat gain in at least three different ways: it increases cell membrane glucose receptors, leading to absorption of glucose by fat cells: it increases fatty acid synthase, which converts the glucose to fatty acids inside the fat cells; it increases PPAR-γ, resulting in the differentiation (conversion) of stem cells into adipocytes (fat cells)
  • Unfortunately, at the moment there is no known cure to mitigate the effects of obesity-causing adenoviruses, other than diet & exercise, even though those viruses affect at least 15% of the obese and overweight and clearly more research is needed.
  • Source: Role of adenoviruses in obesity,
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Why caffeine is good in cellulite creams and not good taken orally?

  • Caffeine is widely used in anti-cellulite creams due to it's multiple lipolytic action.
  • This action of caffeine makes most people wonder, "if caffeine helps break down fat at a local level, then why can't I take it by mouth (in the form of coffee or energy drinks such as Red Bull) to lose weight or reduce cellulite throughout my body?"
  • The answer is very simple: caffeine cannot help you lose weight at a systemic (whole body) level, simply because it only helps with the breakdown and release of fat from fat cells. It DOES not stimulate fat oxidation (burning) on it's own (although it enhances the action of other thermogenic chemicals).
  • So, by using only caffeine and not diet and exercise, the fat released from one fat cell simply returns to another eventually, UNLESS it is "burned" due to diet and/or exercise. This is the reason caffeine cannot be used for whole body fat loss or whole body cellulite reduction.
  • Another limitation of high doses of caffeine taken orally for whole body weight loss is the effect of such high doses on the nervous system and the stimulation followed by exhaustion, that they cause.
  • Finally, caffeine's action on the kidney stimulates the loss of minerals and water, leading to dehydration. Dehydration impairs not only lymphatic drainage but several other functions in the body.
  • So, in summary, feel free to use caffeine locally, as part of an anti-cellulite cream, but avoid more than 2-3 cups of coffee, tea or green tea a day.
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Yet another way by which caffeine helps fight fat and cellulite

  • Caffeine is a well-established lipolytic plant chemical and for this reason it is used in most anti-cellulite and topical fat loss creams.
  • Caffeine was known to have two effects that lead to lipolysis (fat breakdown in fat cells): it inhibitsdenosine and it also inhibits PDE3/4.
  • Now scientists have discovered that caffeine also acts direct on fat cells themselves by suppressing their differentiation (maturation) and division (mitosis) and by inhibiting the expression of key chemicals C/EBPα and PPARγ.
  • The multiple ways by which caffeine helps reduce fat at a local level make it a valuable active in the fight against cellulite, as part of an anti-cellulite cream.
  • Source: Caffeine inhibits adipogenesis through modulation of mitotic clonal expansion and the AKT/GSK3 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,
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Yet another way by which smoking causes cellulite

  • It has been observed since many decades now that women who smoke have more cellulite, despite smoking restricting fat accumulation and weight gain, which is a paradox, given that cellulite is partially caused by fat accumulation.
  • On the other hand, it is also well known that smoking causes vasocontriction and thereby poor circulation and also increases levels of angiotensin II, another risk factor for cellulite. Furthermore, smoking contributes to free radical damage on collagen and blood vessels.
  • Now scientists have discovered that smoking also reduces circulating levels of adiponectin. Adiponectin is an adipokine, i.e.  a hormone that is secreted by fat cells, which helps control fat tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation is an important cause of cellulite (and diabetes type II, by the way). So by reducing levels of adiponectin, tobacco smoking contributes in yet another way towards cellulite development (and diabetes type II)...
  • Stoping smoking and following a diet rich in vegetables, oily fish and fruits will boost adiponectin and help prevent the formation of cellulite and (very) gradually reduce it. For faster cellulite reduction a good anti-cellulite treatment is necessary.
  • Certain natural actives contained in some anti-cellulite creams are also known to boost adiponectin levels and those actives can indeed help prevent cellulite. But applying such creams, or even having treatments, is not a good reason to also continue smoking, as smoking contributes towards cellulite via at least three other known mechanisms and also because smoking is detrimental to overall health.
  • Source: Decreased secretion of adiponectin through its intracellular accumulation in adipose tissue during tobacco smoke exposure,
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Ginseg boosts brown fat thermogenesis and fat loss

  • A recent paper has demonstrated that ginsenoside Rb1, a natural chemical found in ginseng, promotes browning of white fat tissue and the consequent oxidation / burning of fat inside fat cells. This process is known as brown fat thermogenesis.
  • Specifically, it was found that ginsenoside Rb1 increased UCP-1, PGC-1α, PPARγ, basal respiration rate, ATP production and uncoupling capacity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, all key proteins and processes for brown fat thermogenesis.
  • The researchers conclude that the weight loss effect of ginseng is due to the stimulation by ginsenoside Rb1 of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.
  • Ginseng could be potentially used as a supplement in conjunction with other natural thermogenic chemicals, including curcumin (whose thermogenic activity is also examined on this website today), fucoxanthine etc.
  • Source: Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes browning through regulation of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,
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How stress boosts fat gain and cellulite

  • A recent review of the scientific literature has revealed that stress increases fat accumulation and obesity, due to the activation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA). Cortisol, the stress hormone, is secreted by the adrenals after activation of the HPA due to stress and it possesses a strong adipogenic (fat boosting) action.
  • The researchers noticed that the effect of cortisol on fat cells was very pronounced mainly due to the activation of the 11β-HSD1 enzyme: "When examined in adipocytes, there is a clear upregulation of cortisol output (due to greater expression of 11β-HSD1)" .
  • This particular enzyme helps active cortisol and therefore boosts it's effect on fat tissue, leading to fat accumualtion.
  • Fortunately, the action of 11β-HSD1 can be inhibited, at least in superficial fat tissue and in cellulite by 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, a natural chemical found in liquorice and contained in a few high end anti-cellulite creams.
  • Source: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation and cortisol activity in obesity: A systematic review,
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Curcumin helps burn fat by stimulating beige fat thermogenesis

  • Curcumin , the anti-ageing and anti-inflammatory chemical found in turmeric, has been found to boost fat loss, without any changes in food intake.
  • This was attributed by the researchers to fat burning in beige fat tissue. Beige fat tissue is white (normal) fat tissue, which changes it's function from fat accumulation towards fat oxidation (burning), after stimulation by noradrenaline (in every day life noradrenaline is secreted when we exercise). This process produces heat and is called fat tissue thermogenesis.
  • On this paper, it was found that curcumin stimulated the secretion of noradrenalin, thereby boosting beige fat thermogenesis, albeit at quite high quantities (50mg/kg of body weight).
  • However, curcumin has been found in other studies to have a direct lipolytic and anti-adipogenic action, via additional mechanisms to thermogenesis. So the resuls of this experiment further add to the promise of curcumin as an anti-obesity natural chemical. For these reasons and also due to it's anti-inflammatory action, curcumin is also an ideal natural active in anti-cellulite creams, given that cellulite is an aesthetic condition involving inflammation of the excessively expanding superficial fat tissue.
  • Source: Curcumin promotes browning of white adipose tissue in a norepinephrine-dependent way,
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What is the best treatment for skin tightening?

  • Loose skin affects women of all ages and sizes, but especially those over 40 years of age; who live a sedentary life; who follow yo-yo diets or crash diets; who do not eat enough protein
  • The only treatment worth having for skin tightening is monopolar radiofrequency (RF).
  • There are hundreds of RF machines on the market and depending on how those machines are used at different clinics, on can say that there are thousands of RF treatments. Many are quite ineffective while a few are very effective but in summary a high intensity, deep, monopolar radiofrequency treatment is the only technology today that can provide significant skin firming for the body or face. Bipolar radiofrequency (including tripolar, tetrapolar and octapolar) are more superficial and less effective.
  • Anything else, inclusing most massages, ultrasound, AWT (acoustic wave therapy), vibration massage, suction massage (palper-rouler), microcurrents, low level laser therapy LLLT etc. will only offer a minimal benefit and are generally not worth spending money on. Focused ultrasound can offer significant skin tightening but at the cost of very frequent occurences of skin burning, scarring etc., so it is not really worth the risks.
  • Most creams do not really work for skin firming, as they do not contain any significant quantities of skin firming actives, for cost reasons. However, those who do, can significantly boost the results of monopolar radiofrequency or can also provide results on their own. The most well-known skin firming actives are hydroxyproline, centella asiatica, ascorbic acid and several peptides, but several others skin toning actives exist which are equally or even more effective. Combining multiple actives in high concentrations can offer tangible and visible results, while single-ingredient, low-concentration creams offer none.
  • So in summary, the only treatments that is worth spending money on for skin toning / lifting / tightening are high-power, monopolar radiofrequency treatments, especially if combined with a highly concentrated skin firming cream with mutliple actives, during or after treatment. Being in the industry for more than 15 years, I know that I would not spend money on anything else.
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High saturated fat diets damage liver, increase fat cell size, cause fat to be stored in liver and muscles

  •  High fat diets are very popular these days but unfortunately they do not distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fat.
  • Furthermore, quite a lot has been written about the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3. Basically, the higher the ratio, the more unhealthy is the diet, due to the inflammatory potential of too much omega-6 in relation to omega-3.
  • A recent paper has now shown that between two high fat diets with the same calories and the same ratio of omega-6 to omega-3, the one that contains mainly saturated fat is much worse than the one that contains mainly poly-unsaturated fat (PUFA).
  • Specifically, a high fat diet rich in saturated fat for six months leads to increased adipocyte (fat cell) size, liver damage, and "ectopic" fat storage in liver and muscle. None of these changes have been observed with a high fat diet rich in poly-unsaturated fat.
  • No differences were found between the two diets in body weight, total adiposity (total fat levels), adipose tissue health, adipokines (fat tissue hormones), whole body energy balance or glucose tolerance.
  • In summary, based on the findings of this study, if you are going to embark on a high fat diet, forget saturated fat coming from meat, cheese, milk, butter, chocolate etc and focus on avocados, nuts, seeds, olive oil, flax/chia seeds, oily fish and coconut oil (coconut oil saturated fat is "different", as it gets metabolised for energy than for fat storage).
  • Source: A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice,
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Exercise and superficial fat tissue / cellulite

  • It is now well established that exercise increases the protein UCP1 in fat cells, especially those fat cells under the skin (subcutaneous adipose tissue) and inside the skin (cellulite). This consequently turns fat-storing white fat cells into fat-burning "beige" fat cells. In this way, exercise helps you lose fat both by burning fat in muscles and by burning fat in fat cells themselves.
  • Now a new paper published on the journal Diabetes reports that exercise training results in changes in thousands of genes that affect subcutaneous adipose tissue and in adipokines on both subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue (deep stomach fat), with beneficial effects against diabetes, whole body inflammation and heart disease (adipokines are hormone-like substances produced by fat tissue and have multiple implications in whole body health).
  • Even more impressive is the fact that fat cells taken from trained mice and transplanted into sedentary mice continue to behave as if they belong to a trained animal and cause beneficial body-wide changes in metabolism and overall health!
  • In summary, the beneficial changes in whole-body metabolic health that exercise training causes, are to a large extent due to the profound effects of exercise on fat tissue itself, especially superficial fat tissue.
  • Source: Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations,
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Embrace decaf to prevent cellulite and skin ageing

  • Caffeine may have positive effects when used locally, as part of an anti- cellulite cream, and generally mixed or negative effects if taken orally, as a supplement or caffeinated drink, such as coffee, tea etc. We have analysed those effects of caffeine in detail on separate articles on this website. 
  • However, decaffeinated drinks, such as coffee and tea, and low-caffeine drinks, such as cocoa drinks, do have multiple beneficial effects against ageing and cellulite, without any of the potential side effects of caffeine. This is due to the high amount of polyphenols and other phytochemicals contained in those drinks, such as flavanols (coffee and cocoa), procyanidins (coffee), tannins (tea and coffee), chlorogenic acid (coffee) and catechins / epicatechins (cocoa and tea). 
  • Polyphenols act as anti-inflammatory, anti-glycation, anti-adipogenic / lipolytic, blood vessel / circulation supporting and skin firming agents. All these actions have a profound effect on both ageing and cellulite. Due to the absence of caffeine there is no limit to the consumption of these drinks (within reason, of course), so they can be used as effective anti-ageing / anti-cellulite drinks. I know of women who consume 15 cups of decaf green tea a day and their antioxidant levels,are really high without any side effects or other problems. 
  • Decaf green tea, decaf tea and decaf coffee all contain no caffeine and high amounts of polyphenols. Cocoa does contain some caffeine, so excessive consumption should be avoided. However, you can always buy high polyphenol cocoa (also known as high antioxidant) cocoa which will allow you to receive maximum polyphenols with minimum caffeine.
  • I see no need to take green coffee, cocoa or green tea supplements, as you can take quite significant amounts of antioxidant naturally and at the same time enjoy the taste of those drinks several times a day. However, if you do hate tea, coffee or cocoa, that is an option you may wish to explore.
  • However, please note that if you suffer from low blood pressure or similar vascular problems you must be careful in your use of cocoa, especially the high antioxidant variety, as it effectively reduces blood pressure and may lead to dizziness. Always consult a doctor if unsure about changes in your diet and taking supplements. 
  • Of course, existing cellulite will need more than healthy eating and exercise to be significantly reduced, but drinking high polyphenol decaffeinated drinks will definitely enhance the results of any treatment you receive or cream you use. 
  • Since we started using green coffee, cocoa and green tea extracts at our clinic for our anti-cellulite and anti-ageing treatments, results have significantly increased. Our creams also include multiple sources of polyphenols, in addition to high purity coffee, cocoa and tea extracts, for maximum results. And of course, we always recommend high polyphenol drinks and also foods (such as berries) to all our clients. 
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Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) fights fat accumulation and boosts fat metabolism - possible use against cellulite

  • Lemon verbena is a popular aromatic herb which is normally used as an anxiolytic (stress reducing) and natural sleeping aid. 
  • However, new research published recently has shown that polyphenols from lemon verbena decrease triglyceride (fat) accumulation in adipocytes (fat cells) and free radical production (antioxidant action). Most polyphenols possess anti-obesity and antioxidant actions, so the results of this study don't come as a big surpise.
  • Scientists attribute these changes to reductions in PPAR-gamma and fatty acid synthase (FAS), two proteins that boost fat accumulation. Lemon verbena was also found to boost AMPK and PPAR-alpha, two protein that boost fat oxidation (i.e. fat "burning").
  • Verbascoside, a well-known polyphenol found in verbena, was shown to be less potent than a more mixed polyphenol extract from verbena, showing that another molecule or a group of molecules are responsible for the beneficial effects and not verbascoside.
  • The scientists concluded that "the polypharmacological effects of plant-derived polyphenols from lemon verbena may have the potential for clinical applications in obesity".
  • We can safely add that similar potential exists against cellulite, by incorporating a concentrated lemon verbena extract in an anti-cellulite cream.
  • Source: Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) polyphenols alleviate obesity-related disturbances in hypertrophic adipocytes through AMPK-dependent mechanisms. ,
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Eating more fat stimulates the growth of brown fat tissue in the body which in turn burns fat!

  • It is now widely known in the scientific community, but unfortunately not yet in the general public, that there are two types of fat tissue in our bodies: white fat, which stores fat tissue, and brown fat tissue which actually burns fat. There is also an intermediate type of fat tissue, called beige or brite fat tissue, which is white fat tissue but behaves like brown fat tissue, i.e. it burns fat, instead of storing fat.
  • White fat tissue can become "beige" naturally by intensive exercise or exposure to cold - with something that combines the two, such as swimming in cold water or running naked in the snow being even more effective, although a bit uncomfortable...
  • A new study has now shown that high fat diets, such as Paleo, Atkins, Ducan etc, can stimulate the growth of beige / brite fat tissue in our bodies, which will end up burning some of the ingested fat.
  • As the researchers put it, "acquisition of brown-adipocyte features in white adipose tissue could evidence an adaptation to try to counteract increased adiposity due to the intake of high fat diets".
  • In other words, the body reacts to eating more fat by burning more fat and produce heat in the adipose tissue itself (thermogenesis), not just the muscles and liver. This could explain the fact that most overweight people feel generally hotter than lean people. Their fat tissue burns fat for heat - it's not just the insulation from the fat that keeps them warm / hot.
  • Although eating more fat makes our adipocytes (fat cells) actually burn fat, they still do not burn all the ingested fat fast enough to prevent putting on weight and cellulite.
  • The best practical solution then, is to follow a high-fat, high-protein, high-vegetbale, low-carb, calorie-controlled diet combined with high intensity / medium duration exercise (such as interval running orinterval swimming in a non-heated pool), in order to make the most of the thermogenic potential of our fat cells, keep fat down and maintain skin firmness. 
  • Source: The intake of high fat diets induces the acquisition of brown adipocyte gene expression features in white adipose tissue,
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Why only very few electro-mesotherapy treatments work - and how to find one that does

  • Mesotherapy is a well-known aesthetic procedure that involves the multiple injection of substances - anything from vitamins and homeopathic "remedies" to quite nasty chemicals into the skin. Part of the effectiveness of mesotherapy is due to the injury - and subsequent healing - the needles cause and part is due to the actual substances injected.
  • Electro-mesotherapy, also known as needle-free mesotherapy or no-needle mesotherapy, is the application of the principles of mesotherapy, i.e. increased absorption of actives into the skin, without the intrusiveness and complications of injections.
  • Electro-mesotherapy sounds like a great idea on paper but unfortunately in most cases it does not work so well in practice, as many women who have tried this technique can attest.
  • The main reason these treatments do not work is not so much that the machines are not good enough but that the electro-mesotherapy gels / serums / creams used for the treatment are just not concentrated or comprehensive enough. Simple as that.
  • For most skin conditions, such as cellulite, acne, ageing, hair loss etc., using just one or two actives is simply not enough. A cocktail of several high quality actives is necessary for good results.
  • But most importantly, the vast majority of such serums, gels and creams, are simply not concentrated enough.  A 0.1% concentration of an active chemical will not achieve anything. However, these are the concentrations used in many electro-mesotherapy products. Of course, gimmicks such as homeopathic remedies or irrelevant "actives" such as seaweed or artichoke extract for cellulite will simply not work.
  • So to choose the right electromesotherapy treatment you must do your research, ask questions and ensure that the products used are highly concentrated and contain multiple natural actives, for best results.
  • Of course, electro-mesotherapy combined with other technologies, will yield faster and more impressive results than the stand-alone procedure. 
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