Gotu kola / centella asiatica & your skin
~ The ultimate guide ~
All you need to know...
...about the skin and overall health benefits of Centella asiatica / Gotu kola
Jump to one of the three groups of topics by clicking on the headings below
(or simply scroll down to read everything)
- Boost microcirculation, collagen and skin repair with centella asiatica
- Asiatic acid, madecassic acid, madecassoside & asiaticoside: the four therapeutic molecules in centella asiatica
- 25 skin benefits of gotu kola / centella asiatica
- Centella asiatica and cellulite
- Boost your whole body health with centella
- Celluence®: centella asiatica creams for skincare/cellulite
- Meso-CRF® Body | Centella: cellulite and skin tightening treatments, based on centella asiatica
- Meso-CRF® Facial | Centella: non-surgical facelift treatments, based on gotu kola
- What is the percentage of actives in a typical cup of centella asiatica tea or in the leaves of the plant?
- What is the relative percentage of the four actives in centella asiatica leaves?
- Some pictures of one of our own gotu kola plants :)
- All the science papers (60+) pertaining to the skin benefits of centella asiatica, summarised
(circulation, skin firmness, wound healing, fibrosis, cellulite and more)
Anti-ageing, skin firming, water retention & cellulite
Boost microcirculation, collagen and skin repair with centella
The Ayurvedic South Asian herb gotu kola / centella asiatica (also known as hydrocotyle, asiatic pennywort, Indian pennywort and tiger grass) is traditionally used in herbal teas and salads in several Asian countries and in Madagascar. Gotu kola has been used for millennia as a traditional skin medication - and for good reason. Research has shown that centella asiatica / gotu kola is one of the most important anti-ageing, skin repairing, skin firming and anti-cellulite actives known today.
Recently centella has become the new fashionable anti-ageing active in cosmetics and food supplements, used by more and more large skincare and nutrition brands. We, at LipoTherapeia, have been using gotu kola in our skincare products, our cellulite treatments and our anti-aging treatments for fifteen years and are happy to share our knowledge of this impressive plant with you, summarising the most important research on the skin benefits of centella asiatica, below.
Although it is unlikely to become as popular as turmeric or green tea any time soon, centella is still gaining recognition and is becoming more and more common in skincare and clinical nutrition, due to its multiple medicinal properties.
Asiatic acid, madecassic acid, madecassoside & asiaticoside
The skin and health benefits of centella asiatica are the sum of its four main active ingredients: asiatic acid, madecassic acid, madecassoside and asiaticoside. This page is all about exploring the therapeutic benefits of centella asiatica / gotu kola on the skin and overall health and wellbeing.
25 amazing skin benefits of gotu kola / centella asiatica
- Boost the production of fibronectin, collagen type I, collagen type III, and stimulate fibroblast proliferation, for tighter, firmer skin and connective tissue
- Protects elastin and hyaluronic acid from breakdown, thereby protecting skin elasticity, health and hydration
- Fight skin ageing and wrinkles, due to this combined actions on collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid
- Improve stretch marks and cellulite
- Prevent hypertrophic scars and keloids
- Treat burns
- Accelerate wound healing
- Prevent and treat fibrosis
- Repair skin and blood vessels
- Protect blood vessel walls and improves leaky capillaries, thereby improving water retention
- Boost lower leg tissue oxygenation, removal of carbon dioxide from tissues and reduce ankle swelling/oedema, leg heaviness, itching, pain, puffiness, restlessness, cramps and tiredness
- Improve chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), lymphoedema, vein hypertension, varicose veins, hemorrhoids and phlebitis
- Protect veins from the aftermath of deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
- Diabetics avoid the clinical stages of vein disease
- Stabilise arterial plaque and prevent atherosclerosis
- Protect from sun damage
- Treat hyperpigmentation
- Reduce skin dryness
- Has anti-inflammatory properties
- Is a powerful antioxidant
- Fights glycation
- Treat fat tissue inflammation
- Stimulate lipolysis better than caffeine
- Prevent vitiligo by protecting melanin cells from oxidative damage
- Improves the skin's protective barrier function, thereby also boosting skin hydration
To further explore the skin benefits of centella asiatica scroll down on this page to check all 63 studies on the skin benefits of centella asiatica that we have summarised below.
Centella asiatica and cellulite
As you can see from the list above, centella works on all seven aspects of cellulite (bold type on the list above), and that makes her one of the most important anti-cellulite ingredients, hence its use in anti-cellulite products for decades now.
The only thing that was missing from those creams up to now was concentration. For cost/profitability reasons, most such creams contain very little in the way of active ingredients, centella or others (see below).
Boost your whole body health with gotu kola
Although we specialise in skin care it would not be an omission if we neglected to mention to overall health benefits of centella asiatica.
According to a pharmacological review in 2010, centella asiatica may help with mental focus/cognition; relax an overactive mind and reduce anxiety and depression (sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant properties); it has also been investigated for its action against Alzheimer's, epilepsy, gastric ulcers, viral infections and pain/inflammatory conditions.
(Source: Pharmacological Review on Centella asiatica: A Potential Herbal Cure-all)
Since then many more studies have been conducted on centella's health properties - a total of 650 studies by the end of 2017.
Centella asiatica cream for skincare/cellulite
For all the reasons described above, concentrated extracts of centella asiatica / gotu kola, rich in the four triterpenes mentioned above, are of great importance as active ingredients in anti-cellulite, anti-ageing, leg wellness, skin brightening, skin firming, stretch mark and under-eye creams.
Although centella has been used by European doctors for vein conditions, wound healing and anti-aging for more than fifty years, it is much less known in the United States or Britain. Nevertheless, more and more people are now becoming aware of centella food supplements, herbal teas, cellulite creams, anti-aging creams, facials and cellulite treatments.
Pure asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside (creams & treatments)
Our Celluence® creams are the only cellulite creams in the world with high concentrations of 95%+ pure TTFA (total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica), i.e. ALL FOUR centella asiatica actives! And they also contain 39x other natural anti-cellulite actives.
Our Meso-CRF® Facial | Centella and Meso-CRF® Body | Centella are the first and only anti-ageing facial treatment and anti-cellulite treatment in the world, respectively, to utilise Deep Tissue Radiofrequency™ and 100% purified centella asiatica extract - pure asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside.
More about the centella asiatica plant
What is the percentage of actives in a typical cup of gotu kola tea or in the leaves of the plant?
Dried gotu kola leaves contain about 0.8% of the total of asiatic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside, according to a study published in 2014. Although madecassic acid was not measured, it would probably follow the pattern of the other three actives, for a total of about 1% of actives in dried gotu kola leaves.
This means that a double strength 2g centella tea portion contains about 20mg of the four actives. Most studies on centella used 100mg of actives a day, i.e. five double strength cups of gotu kola tea are required to reach that therapeutic level.
[Source: Quantitative Estimation of Asiatic acid, Asiaticoside & Madecassoside in two accessions of Centella asiatica (L) Urban for Morpho-chemotypic variation]
What is the relative percentage of the four actives in centella asiatica leaves?
According to this study, methanolic extraction of the four triterpenes in the gotu kola plant yielded 6% asiatic acid, 28% madecassic acid, 13% asiaticoside and 53% madecassoside. This shows that the actual plant contains more madecassic acid and is geared more towards skin healing than skin tightening, as opposed to TECA and TTFCA extracts, which are more tuned towards skin tightening.
(Source: Evaluation of the topical spray containing Centella asiatica extract and its efficacy on excision wounds in rats.)
Some pictures of one of our own gotu kola plants :)
Gotu kola plants need constant watering (every second day), sunshine and warmth, but if you provide them with those elements they grow quickly. This is one of our centella plants. From time to time we nib a leave to eat raw or a few leaves to make a home made gotu kola tea. You need to have a small plantation to get a constant supply of centella for the five double strength teacups per day recommended by research, but even the occasional tea is an interesting treat, especially for us that we are so passionate about centella extracts.
All the research on the skin benefits of centella asiatica
63+ ways Gotu kola / Centella asiatica...
...helps fight skin ageing and boost circulation, skin firmness, wound healing and cellulite
63/ A 0.1% madecassoside and 5% vitamin C cream results in a significant improvement of the clinical score for deep and superficial wrinkles...
...suppleness, firmness, roughness and skin hydration and skin elasticity, repairing the elastic fibre network in the papillary dermis, after six months of treatment. The study authors state that their "results revealed a functional and structural remodelling of chronically sun-damaged skin". Given the extremely low amount of madecassoside acid in the cream (for reasons of cost-cutting, as madecassoside is 10x more expensive then vitamin C), even more impressive results should be expected with a more significant 1% madecassoside concentration. (Source: Clinical, biometric and structural evaluation of the long-term effects of a topical treatment with ascorbic acid and madecassoside in photoaged human skin)
62/ Both asiaticoside and madecassoside stimulate fibroblast collagen...
...secretion by 30% in 48 hours in culture, while only madecassoside is able to significantly increase collagen III secretion (Source: Comparative activity of asiaticoside and madecassoside on type I and III collagen synthesis by cultured human
61/ Asiaticoside reduces crow's feet (periorbital wrinkles) in double blind, placebo controlled study
Application of an asiaticoside cream twice a day for 12 weeks improved periorbital wrinkles on 65% of volunteers, with 12% experiencing complete wrinkle elimination and 23% not having a significant improvement. With the addition of the other three triterpenes and an increase in concentration, even more impressive results should be expected. (Source: Evaluation of the effects of a preparation containing asiaticoside on periocular wrinkles of human volunteers)
60/ Centella overcomes cortisone's wound-healing suppression...
...and significantly promotes wound healing. Extract-treated wounds were found to epithelise faster, the rate of wound contraction significantly increases and wet and dry granulation tissue weights, granulation tissue breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model also increase. In summary, the extract of the centella asiatica leaf extract has the effect of attenuating the known effects of dexamethasone healing in all wound models. (Source: Effect of Centella asiatica L (Umbelliferae) on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing in Wistar Albino rats)
59/ Centella asiatica accelerates wound healing and hyaluronic acid / collagen synthesis
Titrated extract of centella asiatica (TECA) increases dry weight, DNA, total protein, collagen, glycosaminoglycans and uronic acid in treated wounds, as well as levels of hydroxyproline, showing an increased remodeling of the collagen matrix in the wound. Asiatic acid and asiaticoside was found to be the most active of the 3 triterpenes, with asiaticoside exerting a preferential stimulation of collagen synthesis, at low doses only. (Source: Triterpenes from Centella asiatica stimulate extracellular matrix accumulation in rat experimental wounds)
58/ Centella asiatica acts on multiple phases of wound repair
Centella asiatica extract increases cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, protein and collagen content of granulation tissues. Quicker and better maturation and crosslinking of collagen is observed in extract-treated skin, as indicated by the high stability of acid-soluble collagen and increase in aldehyde content and tensile strength. The extract treated wounds is found to epithelialise faster and the rate of wound contraction is higher, as compared to control wounds. (Source: Effects of Centella asiatica extract on dermal wound healing in rats)
57/ Gotu kola extract protects skin cells from UV-B radiation
Specifically TECA treatment decreases UVB toxicity and increases keratinocyte viability by upregulating 46 genes and downregulating 26 genes functionally related to the inhibition of apoptosis and cell proliferation (Source: Centella asiatica protects against UVB-induced HaCaT keratinocyte damage through microRNA expression changes)
56/ Centella may help against psoriasis...
...a hyperproliferative skin disorder, by inhibiting excessive keratinocyte replication, mainly via the action of its two constituent triterpenoid glycosides, madecassoside and asiaticoside (Source: In vitro keratinocyte antiproliferant effect of Centella asiatica extract and triterpenoid saponins)
55/ Asiaticoside increases levels of collagen type I, while at the same time avoiding fibrosis
Specifically, asiaticoside induces collagen synthesis via its multipronged involvement in Smad signaling via a TGFbeta-independent pathway. This allows asiaticoside to boost collagen I synthesis without the fibrotic effects seen in collagen I synthesis via the TGFbeta pathway. (Source: Asiaticoside induces human collagen I synthesis through TGFbeta receptor I kinase (TbetaRI kinase)-independent Smad signaling)
54/ Centella may reduce hair loss by increasing the size and hair growth capacity of hair follicle dermal papillae...
...and by boosting the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in those cells. (Source: Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells)
53/ Asiaticoside boosts the expression of fifty genes(!)...
...related to fibroblast proliferation, cell cycle progression and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM), with a close correlation between gene profile, mRNA and protein production in the response of the cells to asiaticoside stimulation. (Source: Dermal fibroblast-associated gene induction by asiaticoside shown in vitro by DNA microarray analysis)
52/ Gotu kola extract reduces the development of atopic dermatitis...
...by inhibiting NF-κB signaling in macrophage cells. Specifically TECA (titrated extract of centella asiatica) inhibits hyperkeratosis, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells and the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB activity as well as the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IgE and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (Source: Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Titrated Extract of Centella asiatica in Phthalic Anhydride-Induced Allergic Dermatitis Animal Model)
51/ Centella asiatica extract facilitates the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds...
...with asiatic acid being the most potent component in that respect (Source: Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study)
50/ Centella asiatica protects skin fibroblasts from premature death...
...caused by H202-induced oxidative stress (stress-induced premature senescence / SIPS), by protecting DNA replication (Source: Centella asiatica extracts modulate hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence in human dermal fibroblasts)
49/ Asiaticoside reduces hypertrophic scar formation...
...by downregulating TGF-beta1 and TIMP1 and by increasing TGF-beta3, thereby balancing collagen type I synthesis / breakdown equilibrium. Asiaticoside does not affect MMP1, MMP2 and TIMP2 or type III collagen in hypertrophic scars. (Source: Effect of asiaticoside on the expression of transforming growth factor-beta mRNA and matrix metalloproteinases in hypertrophic scars)
48/ Asiaticoside accelerates wound healing and fights keloid scar...
...formation by decreasing fibroblast proliferation and type I and type III collagen in keloids and by inhibiting both TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII and Smad7. However, asiaticoside does not influence the expression of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4. (Source: Asiaticoside suppresses collagen expression and TGF-β/Smad signaling through inducing Smad7 and inhibiting TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII in keloid fibroblasts)
47/ Madecassoside protects melanocytes and can help treat vitiligo by...
...inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative damage, reducing MMPs and activating autophagy (Source: Protective effect of madecassoside on H2O2-induced oxidative stress and autophagy activation in human melanocytes)
46/ Asiatic acid inhibits weight gain caused by a high fat diet...
...improves insulin resistance, blood lipids and leptin levels, bone mineral density and adiponectin and confers antioxidant protection, at an intake of 20mg/kg of weight (Source: Obesity-alleviating potential of asiatic acid and its effects on ACC1, UCP2, and CPT1 mRNA expression in high fat diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats)
45/ The Gotu kola active madecassoside accelerates burn wound healing via multiple mechanisms...
...via its antioxidative activity, stimulation of collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. In addition, madecassoside was found to decrease nitric oxide (NO) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the burn skin tissue and to boost glutathione (GSH), hydroxyproline levels as well as enhanced epithelisation resulting from dermal proliferation of fibroblasts (Source: Madecassoside isolated from Centella asiatica herbs facilitates burn wound healing in mice)
44/ Centella asiatica protects skin fibroblasts against UVB damage...
...by positively regulating cell proliferation and fighting apoptosis (Source: Titrated extract of Centella asiatica provides a UVB protective effect by altering microRNA expression profiles in human dermal fibroblasts)
43/ Twice daily application of a centella asiatica cream containing 0.5% triterpenes inhibits inflammation...
...and improves epidermal hydration / reduces transepidermal water loss (TEWL) via improving epidermal barrier function (Source: Moisturizing and Antiinflammatory Properties of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Centella asiatica Extract)
42/ Centella asiatica extract facilitates connective tissue and blood vessel repair...
...by effecting the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling and several other growth factor, especially that of the TNFAIP6, an extracellular hyaluronan binding protein (Source: Gene expression changes in the human fibroblast induced by Centella asiatica triterpenoids)
41/ Asiaticoside promotes wound healing...
...by increasing skin cell migration rates, initial skin cell adhesion and normal human dermal fibroblast proliferation (Source: Asiaticoside enhances normal human skin cell migration, attachment and growth in vitro wound healing model)
40/ gotu kola and rutin improve chronic venous insufficiency...
...leg suprafascial oedema, water retention cramps, without the use of compression stockings, after just 30 days of treatment (Source: Effectiveness of the combination of alpha tocopherol, rutin, melilotus, and centella asiatica in the treatment of patients with chronic venous insufficiency)
39/ 67% of Asiaticoside from topical gotu kola cream application gets absorbed into the epidermis and dermis...
... and after 48 hours a substantial amount of asiaticoside still remains inside the skin (Source: Development of a High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Asiaticoside Quantification in Different Skin Layers after Topical Application of a Centella asiatica Extract)
38/ Centella highly significantly reduces vein wall catabolic enzymes...
...thereby improving varicose veins naturally (Source: Effects of Centella asiatica extract on mucopolysaccharide metabolism in subjects with varicose veins)
37/ TTFCA Centella asiatica extract improves chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy...
...modulating the action of fibroblasts in the vein wall and stimulating collagen remodeling in and around the venous wall. TTFCA has a moderate in-vitro and in-vivo stimulating effect on collagen synthesis and, at higher dosages, an inhibition on the synthesis of collagen and acid mucopolysaccharides. The tissue-stimulating action of TTFCA is due to increased collagen production by each cells and it is not due to stimulation of fibroblast proliferation (this differentiates the action of TTFCA from cell growth factors). (Source: Total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in chronic venous insufficiency and in high-perfusion microangiopathy)
36/ TECA centella asiatica extract improves leg heaviness...
...oedema and water retention in lower legs (Source: Titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in the treatment of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs)
35/ Asiaticoside reduces melanin and hyperpigmentation...
...by inhibiting tyrosinase and MITF (Source: Asiaticoside, a component of Centella asiatica, inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma)
34/ Centella asiatica improves venous insufficiency, stretch marks and wound healing
Centella asiatica is a medicinal plant that has been in use since prehistoric times and is used in folk medicine to treat a wide range of indications. However, in contrast to other medicinal plants, centella asiatica and its triterpenes have been subjected to quite extensive experimental and clinical investigations. Studies conducted in accordance to standardised scientific criteria have shown it to have a positive effect in the treatment of venous insufficiency and stretch marks (striae) and wound healing. (Source: Chemical, pharmacological and clinical profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica)
33/ gotu kola extract TECA remodels collagen in a dose-dependent manner...
...with asiatic acid specifically being the only component of TECA responsible for collagen synthesis stimulation (Source: Stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblast cultures by a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica)
32/ Centella asiatica and vitamin B5 boost wound healing...
...by activating and protecting fibroblasts. In a study examining the wound healing activity of centella / gotu kola extract and dexpanthenol (a type of vitamin B5), it was found that both boost wound repair by activating and protecting fibroblasts, each via a different mechanism (Source: Testing Wound-healing Activity in T15 Fibroblast Cultures: A Morphometric Analysis)
31/ Centella ointment improves burn wounds in less than 3 days...
...(both objective and subjective signs) and results in tissue re-epithelialization and complete healing, without any infection (Source: Partial-thickness burn wounds healing by topical treatment: A randomized controlled comparison between silver sulfadiazine and centiderm)
30/ Centella asiatica / gotu kola: the 3000-year old "panacea"...
...worth its reputation. The south Asian medicinal herb centella asiatica (gotu kola) has been used as a cure-all for thousands of years for the treatment of hypertrophic scars (which are very common in Asia), wound healing and burns. The main actives compounds of the herb are asiaticoside, madecasosside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid and together they are called TTFCA (total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica) or TECA (titrated extract of centella asiatica) (Source: Centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview)
29/ Madecassoside reduces hyper-pigmentation caused by UV exposure...
...and reduces UV-induced melanin index within 8 weeks of topical application" by inhibiting UV ray induced melanin synthesis, melanosome transfer and multiple markers of skin inflammation (keratinocyte cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha) (Source: Madecassoside inhibits melanin synthesis by blocking ultraviolet-induced inflammation)
28/ Gotu kola extract fights skin "inflammaging", inhibits oxidative damage and glycation and boosts collagen synthesis.
A synergistic triterpene + polyphenolic extract of centella asiatica has been found to protecting DNA from UV-induced damage, decrease thymine photodimerization by over 28%, reduce expression of interleukin-1α by 26%, inhibit carboxymethyl lysine formation induced by the glycating agent methylglyoxal by 100% and densify the collagen network in the papillary dermis (Source: Anti-inflammaging and antiglycation activity of a novel botanical ingredient from African biodiversity (centevita))
27/ Gotu kola treats photoaged skin, cellulite and striae (stretch marks), small wounds, hypertrophic wounds burns, psoriasis and scleroderma...
...by boosting fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, intracellular fibronectin content and tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids (Source: Centella asiatica in cosmetology)
26/ Madecassoside from centella asiatica improves keloid scars...
...by inhibiting keloid fibroblast proliferation via depolarising the mitochondrial membrane potential (Source: Madecassoside Induces Apoptosis of Keloid Fibroblasts via a Mitochondrial-Dependent Pathway)
25/ asiatic acid inhibits keloid scars by blocking TGF-beta and PAI-1...
...and by boosting Smad 7 and PPAR-gamma. Keloid fibroblasts show higher responsiveness to TGF-β1 stimulation than normal fibroblasts in terms of invasion and collagen synthesis. However, asiatic acid suppresses TGF-β1 induced expression of collagen type I, Smad 2/3 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and elevates Smad 7. Furthermore, its effects on keloid fibroblasts are cancelled by PPAR-γ inhibition. (Source: Asiatic acid isolated from Centella asiatica inhibits TGF-β1-induced collagen expression in human keloid fibroblasts via PPAR-γ activation)
24/ Madecassoside and asiaticoside from gotu kola / centella asiatica...
...are identified as major burn wound healing actives (Source: Medicinal plants and their natural components as future drugs for the treatment of burn wounds: an integrative review)
23/ High concentration topical centella asiatica / gotu kola spray completes wound healing in 14 days
(Source: Evaluation of the topical spray containing Centella asiatica extract and its efficacy on excision wounds in rats)
22/ Combination of Centella asiatica (gotu kola)...
...glycolic acid and vitamins A, C and E stimulates collagen and fibronectin synthesis in fibroblasts (Source: The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast)
21/ Madecassoside protects vein endothelial cells from oxidative injury.
Madecassoside boosts cell viability and prevents apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, loss of mitochondria membrane potential and inhibits malondialdehyde levels caused by hydrogen peroxide in a concentration-dependent manner. (Source: Madecassoside, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centella asiatica herbs, protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress)
20/ Venotonics, such as gotu kola, rutin, diosmin and pine bark extract reduce oedema, cramps, restless legs on lower legs
(Source: Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency)
19/ The gotu kola molecule madecassoside suppresses hypertrophic scars and keloids by inhibiting excessive fibroblast migration
Keloid is a specific skin scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the original injury as it heals. The invasive nature of keloid and notable migratory activity of fibroblasts are a hallmark, which distinguishes keloids from other common scars. However, madecassoside pretreatment was found to considerably suppress keloid fibroblast migration and synthesis of F-actin filaments, thereby inhibiting the growth of keloids. (Source: Madecassoside suppresses migration of fibroblasts from keloids: involvement of p38 kinase and PI3K signaling pathways)
18/ madecassoside stimulates wound healing and collagen III formation
In contrast to what was previously thought, asiaticoside and, especially, madecassoside are the main actives in centella asiatica responsible for burn wound healing and collagen types I and III production (and not asiatic acid and madecassic acid) (Source: Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs)
17/ TTFCA aids wound healing by boosting collagen and fibronectin..
...synthesis in fibroblasts (Source: Effect of the triterpenoid fraction of Centella asiatica on macromolecules of the connective matrix in human skin fibroblast cultures)
16/ centella asiatica reduces leg heaviness, pain and oedema...
...review finds. In a meta-analysis of 8 randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of centella asiatica / gotu kola for chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) it was found that the herb significantly improves microcirculatory parameters, ankle swelling and other CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. (Source: A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency)
15/ Asiaticoside and Gotu kola extract fight fibrosis...
...by inhibiting transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-beta1) (Source: Antifibrotic effect of Centella asiatica Linn and asiatic acid on arecoline-induced fibrosis in human buccal fibroblasts)
14/ TTFCA (total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica) improves...
...improves vein function, venous inflammation and venous hypertension in just 8 weeks, resulting in objective improvement (blood flow at rest, leg tissue oxygenation, removal of carbon dioxide from tissues, capillary permeability/filtration, reduced ankle swelling/oedema); and subjective improvement (feeling of heaviness, itching, puffiness, swelling sensation, restless lower extremity, pain, cramps, tiredness) as reported by patients.
The studies showed that the higher dose of centella asiatica (120mg of TTFCA per day) offered the most impressive results. Higher doses producing better results, there were no side effects and the placebo group experienced no results at all. Furthermore, all the above changes were shown to protect diabetics from microangiopathy and progression to clinical stages.
(Source 1: Effects of the total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in venous hypertensive microangiopathy: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial; Source 2: Total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in the treatment of venous hypertension: a clinical, prospective, randomized trial using a combined microcirculatory model; Source 3: The microcirculatory activity of Centella asiatica in venous insufficiency. A double-blind study; Source 4: Microcirculatory effects of total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica in chronic venous hypertension: measurement by laser Doppler, TcPO2-CO2, and leg volumetry; Source 5: Improvement of capillary permeability in patients with venous hypertension after treatment with TTFCA; Source 6: Treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a clinical, prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-ranging trial; Source 7: Evaluation of treatment of diabetic microangiopathy with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a clinical prospective randomized trial with a microcirculatory model; Source 8: Treatment of diabetic microangiopathy and edema with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, placebo-controlled randomized study; Source 9: Activity of Centella asiatica in venous insufficiency; Source 10: TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.)
13/ Asiaticoside from gotu kola prevents skin ageing and wrinkles and prevents the breakdown of elastin and hyaluronic acid in skin...
...by inhibiting hyaluronidase, elastase and MMP-1 (Source: Matrix metalloproteinase, hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Centella asiatica)
12/ Asiaticoside boosts type I collagen synthesis...
...via the Smad pathway but independently of TGF-beta receptor I kinase (TbetaRI kinase) (Source: Asiaticoside induces human collagen I synthesis through TGF-beta receptor I kinase (TbetaRI kinase)-independent Smad signaling)
11/ Centella minimises ankle swelling / oedema in long haul flights...
...and improves tissue oxygenation and vein-artery function (Source: Flight microangiopathy in medium-to long-distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica)
10/ Gotu kola: the ideal scar / wound healing active
"As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardised and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results". This paper describes how tension is the initiating factor of hypertrophic scar formation or incomplete healing and also how the principal extracts of the centella asiatica plant (asiatic acid, madecassic acid and asiaticoside) have been documented in a large number of scientific reports to: aid wound healing; stimulate scar maturation; produce collagen type I; decrease inflammation; and reduce myofibroblast differentiation (Source: New innovations in scar management)
9/ centella protects veins from damage after deep vein thrombosis...
...(postphlebitic syndrome (PPS) by preserving the integrity of the connective tissue to which endothelial cells are attached, and thereby reducing endothelial cell shedding into the bloodstream (Source: Centella Asiatica Triterpenic Fraction (CATTF) reduces the number of circulating endothelial cells in subjects with post phlebitic syndrome)
8/ asiaticoside affects the expression of 54 genes related to connective tissue function...
..."boosting "cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression and synthesis of the extracellular matrix", especially that of type I and type III collagen. This, in simple terms, means that collagen cells mature faster, multiply faster and produce more collagen and other connective tissue proteins. (Source: Asiaticoside induction for cell-cycle progression, proliferation and collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts)
7/ The collagen boosting, lipolytic, antioxidant and anti-cellulite properties of centella asiatica
In this study it was found that gotu kola extract stimulates collagen synthesis (better than vitamin C), lipolysis (better than that of caffeine), exhibits potent antioxidant / free radical scavenging activity (equal to that of grape seed extract and vitamin C) and exhibits similar UV protection effect to oligomeric cyanidins (Source: Triterpene Composition and Bioactivities of Centella asiatica)
6/ TTFCA stabilises arterial plaques via increased collagen synthesis...
...thereby reducing the risk of thrombosis, artery rupture and embolization (Source 1: Modification of the echogenicity of femoral plaques after treatment with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial; Source 2: Increase in echogenicity of echolucent carotid plaques after treatment with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial)
5/ Centella and pine bark combination helps prevent atherosclerosis...
...by halting the accumulation of arterial plaques and their progression to clinical stages, mainly via reducing oxidative stress (Source 1: Pycnogenol® and Centella asiatica to prevent asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression in clinical events; Source 2: Pycnogenol® and Centella asiatica in the management of asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression)
4/ The combination of centella asiatica, esculoside caffeine and L-carnitine maximise lipolysis by inhibiting alpha-2 adrenoreceptors
In vitro tests demonstrated (a) a dramatic increase in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) content in human adipocytes, with a subsequent rise in the nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) content of human adipocyte incubation medium, and (b) in vivo studies showed an actual potent slimming effect on human volunteers. Moreover, the combination antagonises the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor that is known to reduce intracellular AMPc content and, subsequently, to down-regulate lipolysis. (Source: An in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo demonstration of the lipolytic effect of slimming liposomes: an unexpected alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonism)
3/ gotu kola/centella asiatica can improve chronic venous insufficiency, lymphoedema and circulation impairment
Impaired skin microcirculation is a major contributing factor towards inflammation in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Increase of capillary filtration rate predisposes to the formation of edema. Local lymphedema is a complication of CVI, often underdiagnosed. This paper, a review of randomised prospective controlled trials, shows that horse chestnut extract, flavonoids, total triterpenic fraction of centella asiatica (TTFCA) and procyanidins reduce capillary filtration rate and improve levels of partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in skin. The study found that combining with compression therapy may have some additive effects. (Source: A review of the microcirculation in skin in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: the problem and the evidence available for therapeutic options)
2/ Phlebitis ulcers heal with the aid of herbal cream consisting of gotu kola and other botanicals
This herbal compound, in combination with compression garments, significantly improved inflammation, healing time and pain in phlebitis, in relation to compression garments alone. Ivy extract in the cream contributed to pain reduction; horse chestnut, butcher's broom and grape seed extract reduced inflammation; and allantoin, gotu kola and hyaluronic acid aided sore healing. In patients who applied both the cream and the compression garment pain stopped in 72 hours, inflammation disappeared in one week, tissue swelling stopped in one week and healing was complete in 4 weeks. (Source: Multicentric study on a topical compound with lymph-draining action in the treatment of the phlebostatic ulcer of the inferior limbs)
1/ Review paper suggests gotu kola for the treatment of varicose veins and hemorrhoids
The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of varicose veins. Several botanical extracts (horse chestnut/aesculus, butcher's broom/ruscus, gotu kola, flavonoids and pine bark) have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate. Oral supplementation may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids (Source: Hemorrhoids and varicose veins: a review of treatment options)