Resveratrol has antioxidant, anti-ageing and anti-inflammatory action (ideal for leg/anti-cellulite/anti-ageing creams)

  • Resveratrol is well-known and widely researched for it's anti-ageing, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action, and for these reasons is an ideal ingredient of anti-ageing, leg wellness and anti-cellulite creams  
  • Source: Well-Known Antioxidants and Newcomers in Sport Nutrition: Resveratrol
  • Abstract: Resveratrol (3,5,4´-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid (Baur and Sinclair 2006). It is freely available in food supplements and is found in the seeds and skins of grapes, red wine, mulberries, peanuts and rhubarb (Baur and Sinclair 2006, Nieman et al. 2012). Many in vivo and in vitro studies (Brisdelli et al. 2009, Ventura-Clapier 2012) have provided evidence for neuroprotective, anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, antihypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, proangiogenic, vasorelaxing and anticancer effects of resveratrol. Interestingly, it has also been shown that resveratrol increases skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in many tissues as well as exercise performance in mice (Dolinsky et al. 2012). Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that resveratrol has a poor bioavailability. Resveratrol, even at the high dosage of 750 mg (kg·body weight–1) per day for 13 weeks by the oral route, has been shown to have no adverse effects (Edwards et al. 2011). Pharmacological studies also suggest that therapeutic doses of resveratrol are non-toxic, easily absorbed and well tolerated by humans. A dose of 150 mg·kg–1·day–1 has been used in the study of Dolinsky et al. (2012), while other studies have shown that lower doses of 20––1 proved to be efficient in preventing cardiac dysfunction (Rimbaud et al. 2011) and pulmonary hypertension (Csiszar et al. 2009) and also in vasoprotection (Ungvari et al. 2007). Interest in resveratrol in sport medicine arose after animal studies assessed endurance performance of mice and found a dose-dependent increase in exercise tolerance, improved motor skills and increased number and activity of mitochondria in muscle cells. Both exercise and resveratrol are thought to trigger biochemical cascades, leading to improved mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. Indeed, it has been shown that resveratrol enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and induces adenosine 5´ monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the skeletal muscle of mice (Baur and Sinclair 2006, Lagouge et al. 2006). However, when SIRT1 was knocked out, these effects were absent (Price et al. 2012). Resveratrol as a food supplement in sport medicine has not received much attention especially in human studies, despite some basic scientific evidence that this substance could have multiple indications related to high-performance sport (Nieman et al. 2012). Resveratrol has been also touted as an exercise mimetic effect through its activation of SIRT1 and AMPK (Hart et al. 2013). To support this hypothesis, it has been demonstrated that resveratrol supplementation increases the exercise performance in aged mice (Murase et al. 2009) and mice fed by a Western diet (Lagouge et al. 2006) in the absence of exercise training, suggesting that resveratrol can stimulate pathways similar to exercise. Ryan et al. (2010)demonstrated that 10 days of resveratrol supplementation also diminishes the basal levels of oxidative stress associated with ageing. Functional measurements of maximal isometric force and rate of fatigue were unaffected by resveratrol supplementation in aged animals. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated elevations in AMPK activation and PGC-1α expression, along with increases in mitochondria in animals fed by a high fat diet (Baur and Sinclair 2006). Additionally, enhanced SIRT1 activity like exercise training decreases plasma glucose levels, improves insulin sensitivity, increases mitochondrial number and function, decreases adiposity, improves exercise tolerance and potentially lowers body weight (Elliott and Jirousek 2008). The induction of PGC-1α and activation of AMPK are commonly observed following both exercise and resveratrol administration (Ruderman and Prentki 2004,Baur and Sinclair 2006, Lagouge et al. 2006, Zang et al. 2006). Menzies et al. (2013) demonstrated that SIRT1 protein is responsible for the partial maintenance of basal mitochondrial content and function, in addition to lowering mitochondrial ROS generation and improving fatigue in skeletal muscle. They also showed that resveratrol can activate both AMPK and p38 in temporally distinct stages, which could promote post-translational changes in PGC-1α, thereby altering its activity (Jäger and Nguyen-Duong 1999). These studies (Jäger and Nguyen-Duong 2007, Menzies et al. 2013) also demonstrated that high doses of resveratrol were necessary for AMPK-mediated activation of SIRT1. The resveratrol-induced improvement in energy metabolism is at least partly mediated by specific signal transduction pathways and resveratrol seems mediated by enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis with the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway (Ventura-Clapier 2012). Resveratrol administration seems to induce a higher aerobic capacity in mice, as shown by the increased running time and oxygen consumption in muscle fibres (Menzies et al. 2013). Similarly, Hart et al. (2013) suggested that resveratrol supplementation enhanced the effects of exercise on endurance capacity, and this was shown in rats which already had a high level of aerobic endurance. These findings suggest that resveratrol could be used as a performance enhancer (Baur and Sinclair 2006, Lagouge et al. 2006). Dolinsky et al. (2012) demonstrated that a combination of resveratrol and exercise training increased time to exhaustion compared to exercise training. The authors suggested that resveratrol optimises fatty acid metabolism, which may contribute to the increased contractile force response of skeletal muscles. 

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