Raspberry ketone suppresses fat accumulation and boosts lipolysis, by inhibiting PPAR-gamma and boosting ATGL and HSL, respectively

  • Raspberry extract raspberry ketone (also known as rheosmin and frambinone) has been in the news for years regarding it's fat reduction benefits. The positive news was based around scientific studies which proved and explained it's potential in fighting fat and obesity, while the negative news revolved around exaggerated claims made by fraudulent practitioners and supplement manufacturers which hyped-up raspberry ketone benefits beyond all reason.
  • Regardless of the hype and exaggeration though, the fact remains that raspberry ketone does have an effect on fat cells and more and more studies come to prove this.
  • In a research paper published yesterday, raspberry ketone was shown to "suppress adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner and to suppress the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα)".
  • This in plain English means that raspberry ketone blocks key proteins involved in fat cell growth and halts the growth and maturation of new fat cells (contrary to the urban myth, we constantly produce new fat cells to replace "dying" ones).
  • Furthermore, "in mature adipocytes" raspberry ketone was shown to "increase the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B)."
  • Again, in plain English, this means that raspberry ketone stimulates fat cells to release fat out of the cell, which can then be taken into the general circulation for oxidation ("fat burning") in the muscles and other organs.
  • So, in summary, raspberry ketone "attacks" adipose (fat) cells in two ways:
    • It does not allow new, "baby" fat cells to grow and become fully functional, mature fat cells and stops them from accumulating fat
    • It encourages fully grown, mature fat cells to actually release fat. When a fat cell releases all it's fat content it undergoes "apoptosis" or "programmed cell death" and dies off.
  • The combination of growth inhibition in new fat cells and fat release and apoptosis in existing fat cells amounts to what most people simply call "breaking down the fat"!
  • The authors of the study conclude that "these findings suggest that raspberry ketone holds great promise for an herbal medicine with the biological activities altering the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes."
  • And we could add to that, that if applied locally as an anti-cellulite cream active ingredient, raspberry ketone also holds great promise in the fight against localised adiposity and cellulite.
  • Source: Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
  • Abstract: "Context: Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of red raspberry. The dietary intake of RK has been reported to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism in vivo and human studies. Objective: To elucidate a possible mechanism for anti-obese actions of RK, the effects of RK on the adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. Materials and methods: 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated from day 2 to day 8 of differentiation and mature adipocytes for 24 h on day 12 with 1, 10, 20, and 50 μM of RK. Triacylglycerols were assessed by spectrophotometry and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Treatment of adipocytes with RK suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. RK suppressed the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), which led to further down-regulation of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-2 (aP2). In addition, treatment with 10 μM of RK also reduced mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). In mature adipocytes, RK increased the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B). Discussion and conclusion: These findings suggest that RK holds great promise for an herbal medicine with the biological activities altering the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes."

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