Broad-spectrum protection against fight tissue inflammation - and cellulite
Pterostilbene, is an anti-ageing phytochemical primarily found in berries and grapes. It is closely related to another well-known anti-ageing chemical, resveratrol (the secret behind the so-called "French paradox"). Based on animal studies, both resveratrol and pterostilbene are thought to exhibit anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-ageing properties.
In this study it was discovered that pterostilbene (and the phytochemical garcinol) has a specific anti-inflammatory action on adipocytes (fat cells), reducing almost all important inflammatory markers: COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1β and IL-6!
This is important news for cellulite reduction, as fat tissue inflammation is an important aspect of cellulite, and pterostilbene may be used in the fight against cellulite as an anti-cellulite cream ingredient, or to a lesser extent as a nutritional supplement ingredient.
- Paper: The inhibitory effect of pterostilbene on inflammatory responses during the interaction of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23268743
- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue. Accumulations of adipose tissue macrophages enhance a chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissues. Many studies have indicated that the adipocyte-related inflammatory response in obesity is characterized by an enhanced infiltration of macrophages. The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on the change in inflammatory response due to the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the TNF-α-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, garcinol and pterostilbene significantly decreased the mRNA expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1β and IL-6 secretion by suppressing phosphorylation of p-IκBα and p-p65. In a coculture model of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, pterostilbene suppressed IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression and also reduced the migration of macrophages toward adipocytes. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived conditioned medium (RAW-CM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte and 3T3-CM-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage models, pterostilbene significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-α secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression (COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, TNF-α, PAI-1, CRP, MCP-1, resistin, and leptin). Our findings suggest that garcinol and pterostilbene may provide novel and useful applications to reduce the chronic inflammatory properties of adipocytes. We also found that pterostilbene inhibits proinflammatory responses during the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.