Green tea extract EGCG prevents aortic aneurysm by boosting elastin and preventing inflammation

  • Source: Prevention of abdominal aortic aneurysm progression by oral administration of green tea polyphenol in a rat model.
  • Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Inflammation-mediated elastin destruction in the aortic medial layer is related to progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea polyphenols, reportedly increases elastin synthesis in vitro and may possess anti-inflammatory effects. We used a rat model to investigate whether EGCG could prevent AAA progression. METHODS: AAA was induced with administration of intraluminal elastase and extraluminal CaCl2 in male rats. Rats were randomly divided into a control group (n = 30) and an EGCG group (n = 30). In the EGCG group, an EGCG solution (20 mg/d) was administered orally to each rat from 2 weeks before AAA induction and continued 4 weeks beyond induction. RESULTS: The abdominal aortic diameter was significantly smaller in the EGCG group than in the control group on day 28 (2.9 ± 0.2 vs 2.3 ± 0.1 mm; P < .0001). The medial layer wall thickness and elastin content were significantly greater in the EGCG group than in the control group on day 28 (68.4 ± 13.6 vs 46.7 ± 13.4 μm [P < .001] and 20.3 ± 4.6 vs 9.5 ± 3.6% [P < .0001], respectively). Gene expression levels of tropoelastin and lysyl oxidase were significantly higher in the EGCG group immediately before AAA induction, indicating promoted elastoregeneration by EGCG administration (tropoelastin: 0.59 ± 0.36 control vs 1.24 ± 0.36 EGCG [P < .05], lysyl oxidase: 0.77 ± 0.45 control vs 1.34 ± 0.4 EGCG [P < .05]) (fold increase). Gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, were significantly downregulated in the EGCG group (1.82 ± 0.71 vs 0.97 ± 0.59 [P < .05] and 3.91 ± 3.24 vs 0.89 ± 0.59 [P < .05], respectively). On day 7, gene expression levels and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 were significantly lower in the EGCG group (1.41 ± 0.86 vs 0.51 ± 0.42 [P < .05] and 1.00 ± 0.17 vs 0.29 ± 0.12 [P < .0001], respectively), whereas gene expression levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 were significantly higher in the EGCG group (0.96 ± 0.11 vs 1.14 ± 0.09; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: EGCG attenuated AAA progression in a rat model by preserving the aortic thickness and elastin content of the medial layer through regeneration of elastin, as mediated by anti-inflammatory effects, and subsequent reduction of matrix metalloproteinase activity.

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