Creatine's four-prong effect on fat, muscle and bone cells
Creatine is already well-known as a lean body mass-enhancing and endurance exercise-boosting supplement and exciting recent research has shown that it does boost bone and muscle cell formation.
Now, a new research paper published just two days ago, has shown that creatine also inhibits the formation of new fat cells (inhibits adipocyte differentiation). Creatine exerts this effect on fat cells by reducing key fat cell growth proteins in the cell, such as PPAR-gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα).
This practically means that creatine may be useful as a multiple-action nutritional supplement that:
- fights obesity
- boosts muscle growth
- protects bone density
- boosts exercise endurance
Could creatine be used in the fight against cellulite?
Furthermore, since creatine has a direct inhibitory effect on the growth and maturation of new fat cells, it can also be used in the fight against cellulite with local application on affected areas as an anti-cellulite cream active ingredient.
Several other aminoacids have shown similar activity, so an aminoacid-based anti-cellulite cream with one or more of such aminoacids can be useful in the fight against cellulite.
- Journal: Stem cells and development
- Paper: Creatine inhibits adipogenesis by downregulating insulin-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway
- Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428599
- Abstract: "Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid known to function in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that creatine regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in processes such as osteogenesis and myogenesis. In this study, we show that creatine also has a negative regulatory effect on fat cell formation. Creatine inhibits the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in a dose-dependent manner irrespective of the adipogenic cell models used, including a C3H10T1/2 MSC line, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and primary human MSCs. Consistently, dramatic reduction in mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), glucose transporters 1 and 4 (Glut1, 4), and adipocyte markers, aP2 and adipsin, was observed in the presence of creatine. Creatine appears to exert its inhibitory effects on adipogenesis during early differentiation but not late differentiation or proliferation stages through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-PPARγ signaling pathway. In an in vivo model, administration of creatine into mice resulted in body mass increase without fat accumulation. In summary, our results indicate that creatine downregulates adipogenesis via inhibition of PI3K activation and imply the potent therapeutic value of creatine in treating obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders."