Rutin, leg wellness & cellulite
The flavonoid rutin (typically derived from citrus fruits, such as grapefruit) has been widely researched for decades and has been found in numerous studies to help boost circulation and thereby fight water retention. It is also a well-known antioxidant. Rutin is therefore of great importance as active ingredient in anti-cellulite, leg wellness and under-eye creams.
RUTIN CELLULITE CREAMS, BY CELLUENCE®
The rutin used for the Celluence® cellulite creams is of the highest quality and of >95% purity, i.e. it comprises more than 95% active molecule, in a natural, super-fast absorption matrix. We are extremely proud to feature high quality, highly purified rutin in our formulations, together with multiple other natural active ingredients, for maximum synergy and effectiveness. No other cellulite creams offer ALL the important anti-cellulite / leg wellness ingredients, in one package (learn how our creams differ from any other cellulite formulation.
papers & articles
(Disclaimer: please note that the information and research presented on this page is for educational purposes only and does not constitute efficacy claims for the Celluence® creams, neither does it constitute or aim to replace medical advice)
The salads of the future
Edible flowers have been used throughout the centuries as "glamorous" ingredients for salads and food/dessert decoration. However, what most people do not know is that flowers can be sources of valuable nutrients, carotenoids and polyphenols.
In these two studies, the nutritional properties of several flowers have been analysed: dahlias, roses, marigolds, mountain cornflower, elderflower, french honeysuckle and mallow.
Scientists have found that:
- most flowers are rich in fibre, natural sugars, organic acids, polyunsaturated fats (especially linoleic acid) and also small amounts of protein
- calendula/marigold is rich in tocopherol (vitamin E) and carotenoids (vitamin A precursor)
- elderflower has high levels of the antioxidants rutin and quercetin and the highest overall antioxidant activity, with cornflower being a close runner-up
- mallow can help keep high blood glucose and weight in check, by inhibiting the absorption of carbohydrates
- additionally, elderflower has the strongest activity against lipid peroxidation, one of the causes of cardiovascular disease
The Instagram-able superfoods
Typically plant pigments represent healthful "antioxidants" (carotenoids and polyphenols), and most flowers are appreciated for their vibrant colours. This means that flowers are an undiscovered treasure trove of wholesomeness for our plate.
Only a tiny sample of the abundance of deeply colourful flowers available has being investigated by these two studies, so we expect in future studies more beneficial effects to be discovered
Edible flowers are clearly an amazing source of taste, decoration, colour, glamour and nutrients for our plate, and clearly there is huge potential in marketing them as salad ingredients as well as nutritional supplements.
Flowers could become the salads of the future, and many of them can easily attain superfood status, due to their high micronutrient and low calorie profile - not to mention the Instagram factor!
- Paper 1: Nutritional and chemical characterization of edible petals and corresponding infusions: Valorization as new food ingredients
- Abstract 1: Edible flowers provide new colours, textures and vibrancy to any dish, and apart from the “glam” factor, they can constitute new sources of bioactive compounds. In the present work, the edible petals and infusions of dahlia, rose, calendula and centaurea, were characterized regarding their nutritional value and composition in terms of hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. Carbohydrates were the most abundant macronutrients, followed by proteins and ash. Fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified in all the petals and infusions. Rose petals and calendula infusions gave the highest content of organic acids, mainly due to the presence of malic and quinic acids, respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated over saturated fatty acids, mainly due to the contribution of linoleic acid. Calendula presented the highest content in tocopherols, with α-tocopherol as the most abundant. These results highlight the interest of edible petals “as” and “in” new food products, representing rich sources of bioactive nutrients. Highlights: Edible petals can be included in a daily diet as nutrients source. Edible petals can be also used in infusions providing soluble sugars and organic acids. Rose petals gave the highest content of organic acids and sugars. Calendula petals presented the highest content in tocopherols.
- Paper 2: Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties
- Abstract 2: Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.
- Source: Phytochemicals in regulating fatty acid β-oxidation: Potential underlying mechanisms and their involvement in obesity and weight loss.
- Abstract: Excessive accumulation of fat as the result of more energy intake and less energy expenditure is known as obesity. Lipids are essential components in the human body and are vital for maintaining homeostasis and physiological as well as cellular metabolism. Fatty acid synthesis and catabolism (by fatty acid oxidation) are normal part of basic fuel metabolism in animals. Fatty acids are degraded in the mitochondria by a biochemical process called β-oxidation in which two-carbon fragments are produced in each cycle. The increase in fatty acid oxidation is positively correlated with body mass index. Although healthy life style, avoiding Western diet, dieting and strenuous exercise are the commonly used methods to lose weight, they are not considered a permanent solution in addition to risk attenuation of in basal metabolic rate (BMR). Pharmacotherapy offers benefits of weight loss by altering the satiety and lowering absorption of fat from the food; however, its side effects may outweigh the benefits of weight loss. Alternatively, dietary phytochemicals and natural health products offer great potential as an efficient weight loss strategy by modulating lipid metabolism and/or increasing BMR and thermogenesis. Specifically, polyphenols such as citrus flavonoids, green tea epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, capsaicin and curcumin, have been reported to increase lipolysis and induce fatty acid β-oxidation through modulation of hormone sensitive lipase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, carnitine acyl transferase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1. In this review article, we discuss selected phytochemicals in relation to their integrated functionalities and specific mechanisms for weight loss.
- Source: Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency.
- Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common condition caused by valvular dysfunction with or without associated obstruction, usually in the lower limbs. It might result in considerable discomfort with symptoms such as pain, itchiness and tiredness in the legs. Patients with CVI may also experience swelling and ulcers. Phlebotonics are a class of drugs often used to treat CVI. This is an update of a review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of phlebotonics administered both orally and topically for treatment of signs and symptoms of lower extremity CVI. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (August 2015), as well as the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 7). The reference lists of the articles retrieved by electronic searches were searched for additional citations. We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal for ongoing studies (last searched in August 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of rutosides, hidrosmine, diosmine, calcium dobesilate, chromocarbe, Centella asiatica, disodium flavodate, french maritime pine bark extract, grape seed extract and aminaftone in patients with CVI at any stage of the disease. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included RCTs. We estimated the effects of treatment by using risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs), according to the outcome assessed. We calculated 95% confidence interval (CIs) and percentage of heterogeneity (I(2)). Additionally, we performed sensitivity analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We included 66 RCTs of oral phlebotonics, but only 53 trials provided quantifiable data (involving 6013 participants; mean age 50 years) for the efficacy analysis: 28 for rutosides, 10 hidrosmine and diosmine, nine calcium dobesilate, two Centella asiatica, two aminaftone, two french maritime pine bark extract and one grape seed extract. No studies evaluating topical phlebotonics, chromocarbe, naftazone or disodium flavodate fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Moderate-quality evidence suggests that phlebotonics reduced oedema in the lower legs compared with placebo. Phlebotonics showed beneficial effects among participants including reduced oedema (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.78; I(2) = 20%; 1245 participants) and ankle circumference (MD -4.27 mm, 95% CI -5.61 to -2.93 mm; I(2) = 47%; 2010 participants). Low-quality evidence reveals no difference in the proportion of ulcers cured with phlebotonics compared with placebo (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.13; I(2) = 5%; 461 participants). In addition, phlebotonics showed greater efficacy for trophic disorders, cramps, restless legs, swelling and paraesthesia, when compared with placebo. We identified heterogeneity for the variables of pain, itching, heaviness, quality of life and global assessment by participants. For quality of life, it was not possible to pool the studies because heterogeneity was high. However, high-quality evidence suggests no differences in quality of life for calcium dobesilate compared with placebo (MD -0.60, 95% CI -2.15 to 0.95; I(2) = 40%; 617 participants), and low-quality evidence indicates that in the aminaftone group, quality of life was improved over that reported in the placebo group (MD -10.00, 95% CI -17.01 to - 2.99; 79 participants). Moderate-quality evidence shows that the phlebotonics group had greater risk of non-severe adverse events than the placebo group (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.41; I(2) = 0; 3975 participants). Gastrointestinal disorders were the most frequently reported adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence shows that phlebotonics may have beneficial effects on oedema and on some signs and symptoms related to CVI such as trophic disorders, cramps, restless legs, swelling and paraesthesia when compared with placebo but can produce more adverse effects. Phlebotonics showed no differences compared with placebo in ulcer healing. Additional high-quality RCTs focused on clinically important outcomes are needed to improve the evidence base.
- The flavonoid rutin, a chemical relative to quercetin, has been found to inhibit adipose tissue growth and expansion, by blocking multiple adipose tissue growth factors (PPAR-gamma, FABP, FAS, lipin1 and C/EBP), showing another mechanism by which rutin can fight cellulite
- The other mechanism is of course the action of rutin against water retention, by protecting capillaries, larger blood vessels and microcirculation, in general.
- For these reasons, rutin is an ideal natural active in cellulite creams
- Source: Lipin1-Mediated Repression of Adipogenesis by Rutin.
- Abstract: Rutin, also called rutoside or quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin, is a glycoside between the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose. Although many effects of rutin have been reported in vitro and in vivo, the anti-adipogenic effects of rutin have not been fully reported. The aim of this study was to confirm how rutin regulates adipocyte related factors. In this study, rutin decreased the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including peroxisome proliferators, activated receptor [Formula: see text] (PPAR[Formula: see text], CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein [Formula: see text] (C/EBP[Formula: see text], fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase in 3T3-L1 cells. Rutin also repressed the expression of lipin1, which is an upstream regulator that controls PPAR[Formula: see text] and C/EBP[Formula: see text]. In addition, when 3T3-L1 was transfected with lipin1 siRNA to block lipin1 function, rutin did not affect the expressions of PPAR[Formula: see text] and C/EBP[Formula: see text]. These results suggest that rutin has an anti-adipogenic effect that acts through the suppression of lipin1, as well as PPAR and C/EBP.
- This is one of multiple clinical studies that report on the efficacy of centella asiatica and other natural vasoactive compounds (in this case, rutin, melilotus and vitamin E)
- In this study, which was performed on patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency / water retention without compressive stockings, the treatment group reported improved oedema, reduced cramps and overall reduced water retention symptoms, after just 30 days of treatment.
- Rutin and centella asiatica are widely used in Europe in oral supplements against water retention, as well as anti-cellulite creams and leg wellness creams to offer relief against heavy legs
- Melilotus is now used very little, while tocopherol seems to be unrelated to water retention improvement and unnecessary in the compound tested
- Source: Effectiveness of the combination of alpha tocopherol, rutin, melilotus, and centella asiatica in the treatment of patients with chronic venous insufficiency
- Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this comparative clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of the association of alpha tocopherol, rutin, melilotus officinalis, and centella asiatica with oral administration in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. METHODS: Thirty patients with chronic venous insufficiency have been randomized in two groups of fifteen subjects (control and treatment group). During the period of treatment the patients didn't wear elastocompressive stockings. The therapeutic efficacy and the clinical tolerability of this association have been valued with clinical-instrumental evaluations and by a control after 15 and 30 days. Functional bothers, cramps and the edema have been valued in function presence and of their gravity with a clinical-score between 0 and 4. RESULTS: At the end of the observation period, a significant improvement of the clinical simptomatology was obtained, characterised by a diminution of the sovrafascial edema. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms previous clinical experiences regarding the described treatment and suggests its application in chronic venous insufficiency
- Natural actives, such as horse chestnut extract, flavonoids (such as quercetin, hesperidin and rutin), red vine leaves extract, gotu kola / centella asiatica extract and proanthocyanidin, on their own or in combination with compression garments, can offer valuable help in cases of chronic venous insufficiency, lymphedema and circulation impairment, according to this study.
- These actives have been used orally and topically for decades for these purposes, and can offer valuable help in both skin circulation improvement and cellulite reduction (skin microcirculation impairment is an important factor of cellulite).
- Source: A review of the microcirculation in skin in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: the problem and the evidence available for therapeutic options
- Abstract: Impairment of the cutaneous microcirculation is a major predisposing factor in inflammation and ulceration in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Increase of capillary filtration rate predisposes to the formation of edema. Local lymphedema is a complication of CVI, often underdiagnosed. This review is focused on CVI but excludes the complication of ulceration. Treatment of microcirculatory dysfunction can be done by pharmacologic intervention or compression therapy or using a combination of both. This review is focused on drugs that have been evaluated by randomized prospective controlled trials. The following compounds are discussed: horse chestnut seed extracts, flavonoids, red vine leaves extracts, total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica (L), prociadins, calcium dobesilate, and pentoxifylline. The microcirculatory effects of compression therapy using bandages or stockings are also reviewed. The major microcirculatory effects that have been shown are the reduction of capillary filtration rate and improvements in levels of transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide (TcPO(2) and TcPCO(2)). Available data suggest that a combination of pharmacologic and compression therapy may have some additive effects.