Rutin and your skin
Circulation, water retention, oxidative damage, cellulite
The flavonoid rutin (typically derived from citrus fruits, such as grapefruit, but also found in higher concentrations in other plants, such as sophora japonica or barbary buckwheat) has been widely researched for decades and has been found in numerous studies to help boost circulation and thereby fight water retention. It is also a well-known antioxidant.
Rutin is therefore of great importance as active ingredient in anti-cellulite, leg wellness and under-eye creams [the Celluence® cellulite creams are only creams in the world featuring 95% rutin combined with 39 other natural actives, for maximum results against water retention and cellulite.
3+ ways Rutin...
...helps fight oxidative damage, water retention and cellulite
Rutin and centella / gotu kola improve chronic venous insufficiency / water retention - clinical study
This is one of multiple clinical studies that report on the efficacy of centella asiatica and other natural vasoactive compounds (in this case, rutin, melilotus and vitamin E). In this study, which was performed on patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency / water retention without compressive stockings, the treatment group reported improved oedema, reduced cramps and overall reduced water retention symptoms, after just 30 days of treatment.
Rutin and centella asiatica are widely used in Europe in oral supplements against water retention, as well as anti-cellulite creams and leg wellness creams to offer relief against heavy legs. Melilotus is now used very little, while tocopherol seems to be unrelated to water retention improvement and superfluous in the compound tested, so the main compounds of interest are rutin and centella (gotu kola.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The aim of this comparative clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of the association of alpha tocopherol, rutin, melilotus officinalis, and centella asiatica with oral administration in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. METHODS: Thirty patients with chronic venous insufficiency have been randomized in two groups of fifteen subjects (control and treatment group). During the period of treatment the patients didn't wear elastocompressive stockings. The therapeutic efficacy and the clinical tolerability of this association have been valued with clinical-instrumental evaluations and by a control after 15 and 30 days. Functional bothers, cramps and the edema have been valued in function presence and of their gravity with a clinical-score between 0 and 4. RESULTS: At the end of the observation period, a significant improvement of the clinical simptomatology was obtained, characterised by a diminution of the sovrafascial edema. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms previous clinical experiences regarding the described treatment and suggests its application in chronic venous insufficiency.
[Source: Effectiveness of the combination of alpha tocopherol, rutin, melilotus, and centella asiatica in the treatment of patients with chronic venous insufficiency]
Venotonic actives, such as rutin, gotu kola, diosmin and pine bark extract reduce oedema, cramps, restless legs on lower legs
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common condition caused by valvular dysfunction with or without associated obstruction, usually in the lower limbs. It might result in considerable discomfort with symptoms such as pain, itchiness and tiredness in the legs. Patients with CVI may also experience swelling and ulcers. Phlebotonics are a class of drugs often used to treat CVI. This is an update of a review first published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of phlebotonics administered both orally and topically for treatment of signs and symptoms of lower extremity CVI. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (August 2015), as well as the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 7). The reference lists of the articles retrieved by electronic searches were searched for additional citations. We also contacted pharmaceutical companies and searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal for ongoing studies (last searched in August 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of rutosides, hidrosmine, diosmine, calcium dobesilate, chromocarbe, Centella asiatica, disodium flavodate, french maritime pine bark extract, grape seed extract and aminaftone in patients with CVI at any stage of the disease. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included RCTs. We estimated the effects of treatment by using risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs), according to the outcome assessed. We calculated 95% confidence interval (CIs) and percentage of heterogeneity (I(2)). Additionally, we performed sensitivity analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We included 66 RCTs of oral phlebotonics, but only 53 trials provided quantifiable data (involving 6013 participants; mean age 50 years) for the efficacy analysis: 28 for rutosides, 10 hidrosmine and diosmine, nine calcium dobesilate, two Centella asiatica, two aminaftone, two french maritime pine bark extract and one grape seed extract. No studies evaluating topical phlebotonics, chromocarbe, naftazone or disodium flavodate fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Moderate-quality evidence suggests that phlebotonics reduced oedema in the lower legs compared with placebo. Phlebotonics showed beneficial effects among participants including reduced oedema (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.78; I(2) = 20%; 1245 participants) and ankle circumference (MD -4.27 mm, 95% CI -5.61 to -2.93 mm; I(2) = 47%; 2010 participants). Low-quality evidence reveals no difference in the proportion of ulcers cured with phlebotonics compared with placebo (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.13; I(2) = 5%; 461 participants). In addition, phlebotonics showed greater efficacy for trophic disorders, cramps, restless legs, swelling and paraesthesia, when compared with placebo. We identified heterogeneity for the variables of pain, itching, heaviness, quality of life and global assessment by participants. For quality of life, it was not possible to pool the studies because heterogeneity was high. However, high-quality evidence suggests no differences in quality of life for calcium dobesilate compared with placebo (MD -0.60, 95% CI -2.15 to 0.95; I(2) = 40%; 617 participants), and low-quality evidence indicates that in the aminaftone group, quality of life was improved over that reported in the placebo group (MD -10.00, 95% CI -17.01 to - 2.99; 79 participants). Moderate-quality evidence shows that the phlebotonics group had greater risk of non-severe adverse events than the placebo group (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.41; I(2) = 0; 3975 participants). Gastrointestinal disorders were the most frequently reported adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence shows that phlebotonics may have beneficial effects on oedema and on some signs and symptoms related to CVI such as trophic disorders, cramps, restless legs, swelling and paraesthesia when compared with placebo but can produce more adverse effects. Phlebotonics showed no differences compared with placebo in ulcer healing. Additional high-quality RCTs focused on clinically important outcomes are needed to improve the evidence base.
[Source: Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency]
Rutin inhibits fat cell growth by blocking multiple fat growth factors (PPAR-gamma, FABP, FAS, lipin1 and C/EBP)
The flavonoid rutin, a chemical relative to quercetin, has been found to inhibit adipose tissue growth and expansion, by blocking multiple fat tissue growth factors (PPAR-gamma, FABP, FAS, lipin1 and C/EBP), showing another mechanism by which rutin can fight cellulite. The other mechanism is of course the action of rutin against water retention, by protecting capillaries, larger blood vessels and microcirculation, in general. For these reasons, rutin is an ideal natural active in cellulite creams.
Source: Lipin1-Mediated Repression of Adipogenesis by Rutin.
Abstract: Rutin, also called rutoside or quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin, is a glycoside between the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose. Although many effects of rutin have been reported in vitro and in vivo, the anti-adipogenic effects of rutin have not been fully reported. The aim of this study was to confirm how rutin regulates adipocyte related factors. In this study, rutin decreased the expressions of adipogenesis-related genes, including peroxisome proliferators, activated receptor [Formula: see text] (PPAR[Formula: see text], CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein [Formula: see text] (C/EBP[Formula: see text], fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase in 3T3-L1 cells. Rutin also repressed the expression of lipin1, which is an upstream regulator that controls PPAR[Formula: see text] and C/EBP[Formula: see text]. In addition, when 3T3-L1 was transfected with lipin1 siRNA to block lipin1 function, rutin did not affect the expressions of PPAR[Formula: see text] and C/EBP[Formula: see text]. These results suggest that rutin has an anti-adipogenic effect that acts through the suppression of lipin1, as well as PPAR and C/EBP.