Retinol, leg wellness & cellulite
Retinol (vitamin A) needs no introduction. it is one of the most researched anti-ageing and anti-cellulite compounds, acting to rejuvenate and smooth the skin via multiple pathways (it is known to boost collagens type I & III and hyaluronic acid, fight cellulite and fat accumulation, inhibit skin hyper-pigmentation, DNA damage after sun exposure, acne and free radical damage). For all those reasons, retinol is of great importance as active ingredient in anti-ageing, anti-cellulite, leg wellness, skin firming, skin brightening, anti-acne and under-eye creams.
RETINOL CELLULITE creams, by Celluence®
The retinol used for the Celluence® cellulite creams is of the highest quality and of >95% purity, i.e. it comprises more than 95% active molecule, in a natural, super-fast absorption matrix. We are proud to feature high quality, highly purified vitamin A in our formulations, together with multiple other natural active ingredients, for maximum synergy and effectiveness. No other cellulite creams offer ALL the important anti-cellulite / leg wellness ingredients, in one package (learn how our creams differ from any other cellulite formulation).
Retinol: papers & articles
(Disclaimer: please note that the information and the research presented on this page is for informational purposes only and does not constitute efficacy claims for the Celluence® creams, neither does it constitute or aim to replace medical advice)
- Retinol / vitamin A is a well-established anti-ageing and anti-acne natural chemical. It's more powerful metabolite, all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), is also used for anti-ageing, and especially for acne reduction. However, retinoic acid has quite a few side effects, so it would be interesting to know if retinol, which has a much safe profile, is equally effective or not.
- In this study, after four weeks of topical application, patients experienced increased skin firmness, increased collagen type I and collagen type III with both products, and also significant reduction of wrinkles after 12 weeks of treatment with retinol.
- Predictably, retinol was found to be somewhat less effective than retinoic acid, but nevertheless the results were classed as "significant" by the researchers. So the use of retinol creams for anti-ageing, skin firming and wrinkle reduction is warranted, based on the results of this study.
- Source: A comparative study of the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on histological, molecular, and clinical properties of human skin.
- Abstract: BACKGROUND: All-trans retinol, a precursor of retinoic acid, is an effective anti-aging treatment widely used in skin care products. In comparison, topical retinoic acid is believed to provide even greater anti-aging effects; however, there is limited research directly comparing the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on skin. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compare the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on skin structure and expression of skin function-related genes and proteins. We also examine the effect of retinol treatment on skin appearance. METHODS: Skin histology was examined by H&E staining and in vivo confocal microscopy. Expression levels of skin genes and proteins were analyzed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The efficacy of a retinol formulation in improving skin appearance was assessed using digital image-based wrinkle analysis. RESULTS: Four weeks of retinoic acid and retinol treatments both increased epidermal thickness, and upregulated genes for collagen type 1 (COL1A1), and collagen type 3 (COL3A1) with corresponding increases in procollagen I and procollagen III protein expression. Facial image analysis showed a significant reduction in facial wrinkles following 12 weeks of retinol application. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that topical application of retinol significantly affects both cellular and molecular properties of the epidermis and dermis, as shown by skin biopsy and noninvasive imaging analyses. Although the magnitude tends to be smaller, retinol induces similar changes in skin histology, and gene and protein expression as compared to retinoic acid application. These results were confirmed by the significant facial anti-aging effect observed in the retinol efficacy clinical study.
- Source: Efficacy and Tolerability of a Skin Brightening/Anti-Aging Cosmeceutical Containing Retinol 0.5%, Niacinamide, Hexylresorcinol, and Resveratrol.
- Abstract: Consumers are increasingly interested in over-the-counter skin care products that can improve the appearance of photodamaged and aging skin. This 10-week, open-label, single- center study enrolled 25 subjects with mild to moderate hyperpigmentation and other clinical stigmata of cutaneous aging including fine lines, sallowness, lack of clarity, and wrinkling. Their mean age was 53.4±7.7 years. The test product contained retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide 4.4%, resveratrol 1%, and hexylresorcinol 1.1% in a moisturizing base. Subjects were provided a skin care regimen including a cleanser, hydrating serum, moisturizer, and an SPF 30 sunscreen for daily use. The test product was applied only at night. The use of this skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical was found to provide statistically significant improvements in all efficacy endpoints by study end. Fine lines, radiance, and smoothness were significantly improved as early as week 2. By week 4, hyperpigmentation, overall skin clarity, evenness of skin tone, and wrinkles showed statistically significant improvement compared to baseline. Mild retinoid dermatitis including flaking and redness occurred early in the study as reflected by tolerability scores. By week 10, subjects reported no stinging, itching, dryness, or tingling. The results of this open-label clinical study suggest that a topical cream containing retinol 0.5% in combination with niacinamide, resveratrol, and hexylresorcinol is efficacious and tolerable for skin brightening/anti-aging when used with a complementary skin care regimen including SPF 30 sun protection.
- Source: Retinoic Acid as a Modulator of T Cell Immunity.
- Abstract: Vitamin A, a generic designation for an array of organic molecules that includes retinal, retinol and retinoic acid, is an essential nutrient needed in a wide array of aspects including the proper functioning of the visual system, maintenance of cell function and differentiation, epithelial surface integrity, erythrocyte production, reproduction, and normal immune function. Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide and is associated with defects in adaptive immunity. Reports from epidemiological studies, clinical trials and experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that vitamin A plays a central role in immunity and that its deficiency is the cause of broad immune alterations including decreased humoral and cellular responses, inadequate immune regulation, weak response to vaccines and poor lymphoid organ development. In this review, we will examine the role of vitamin A in immunity and focus on several aspects of T cell biology such as T helper cell differentiation, function and homing, as well as lymphoid organ development. Further, we will provide an overview of the effects of vitamin A deficiency in the adaptive immune responses and how retinoic acid, through its effect on T cells can fine-tune the balance between tolerance and immunity.
- in a recent clinical study it was shown that very aged sun protected buttock skin (76-year old, on average) responded to 0.4% retinol treatment for only 7 days with increased epidermis epidermal thickness, improve skin blood vessel function, and increase elastin, collagen output by fibroblasts in the dermis, leading to improved firmness and elasticity.
- The study concludes that irritating tretinoin/retinoic acid are not necessary and simple retinol is equally effective in fighting skin ageing, even in older people and even in thick skin, such as buttock skin. Results in thinner facial skin should be even more pronounced, as smaller amounts of actives are needed for facial skin and absorption is much higher.
- Source: Molecular basis of retinol anti-aging properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo.
- Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Retinoic acid has been shown to improve the aged-appearing skin. However, less is known about the anti-aging effects of retinol (ROL, vitamin A), a precursor of retinoic acid, in aged human skin in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of retinol anti-aging properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo. METHODS: Sun-protected buttock skin (76±6 years old, n=12)was topically treated with 0.4% ROL and its vehicle for seven days. The effects of topical ROL on skin epidermis and dermis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, Northern analysis, real-time RT-PCR, and Western analysis. Collagen fibrils nanoscale structure and surface topology were analysed by atomic force microscopy. RESULTS: Topical ROL shows remarkable anti-aging effects through three major types of skin cells: epidermal keratinocytes, dermal endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Topical ROL significantly increased epidermal thickness by stimulating keratinocytes proliferation and upregulation of c-Jun transcription factor. In addition to epidermal changes, topical ROL significantly improved dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment; increasing dermal vascularity by stimulating endothelial cells proliferation and ECM production (type I collagen, fibronectin, and elastin) by activating dermal fibroblasts. Topical ROL also stimulates TGF-β/CTGF pathway, the major regulator of ECM homeostasis, and thus enriched the deposition of ECM in aged human skin in vivo. 0.4% topical ROL achieved similar results as seen with topical retinoic acid, the biologically active form of ROL, without causing noticeable signs of retinoid side effects. CONCLUSION: 0.4% topical ROL shows remarkable anti-aging effects through improvement of the homeostasis of epidermis and dermis by stimulating the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells, and activating dermal fibroblasts. These data provide evidence that 0.4% topical ROL is a promising and safe treatment to improve naturally aged human skin.
- Source: The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast
- Abstract: Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.
- A facial care regimen based on HUGE amounts of vitamin C (30%), retinol (0.5%), bakuchiol, CoQ10, vitamin E and herbal extract of ophiopogon japonica improved pigementation and overall facial condition in 12 weeks, as was found by a recently published study, but also increased skin dryness for 8 weeks
- However, the use of 30% (!) vitamin C is quite pointless in order to improve pigmentation, as the same result can be achieved by 1-2% curcumin or resveratrol, which in addition have more potent anti-ageing effects than vitamin C. To be honest, I really fail to understand why such mega doses need to be used...
- The use of multiple actives is commendable, however, and it is a nice departure from creams containing only a couple of actives. However, it would be nice if the formulators used the 28% of the excess vitamin C (2% is absolutely fine, more is not needed) to add other more advanced actives, for better synergy, better results and higher customer satisfaction.
- Retinol contributed to the anti-ageing effect but also to skin dryness
- Vitamin E, bakuchiol and CoQ10 also contributed to anti-ageing
- Source: An Open Label Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerance of a Retinol and Vitamin C Facial Regimen in Women With Mild-to-Moderate Hyperpigmentation and Photodamaged Facial Skin.
- Abstract: A 12-week open-label, single-center clinical usage trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a dual product regimen consisting of a 0.5% retinol treatment and an anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C in women with mild to moderate hyperpigmented and photodamaged facial skin. Clinical grading of several efficacy parameters, tolerability evaluations, subject self-assessment questionnaires, and digital photography were completed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. A total of 44 women completed the study. Effective ingredients incorporated into the 0.5% retinol treatment included encapsulated retinol for a retinol concentration of 0.5%, bakuchiol, and Ophiopogon japonicus root extract. The anti-aging moisturizer with 30% vitamin C contained 30% vitamin C in the form of tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate (THD ascorbate), alpha-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E) and ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). The facial regimen produced a statistically significant decrease (improvement) in clinical grading scores for all parameters assessed at weeks 8 and 12 when compared with baseline scores. In addition, the majority of these parameters were improved at week 4. The test regimen was well-perceived by the subjects for various inquiries regarding facial skin condition, product efficacy, and product attributes. Several tolerability parameters were assessed with no statistically significant increase except for dryness. A statistically significant increase in clinical grading scores for dryness on the face occurred at weeks 4 and 8 when compared to baseline scores. The increase in dryness is expected when introducing a retinol product to a facial regimen and the dryness did not persist to the week 12 time point.
- Retinol, caffeine and ruscogenin (butcher's broom extract) are well-known natural anti-cellulite chemicals, which are used, in lower or higher concentrations, in many anti-cellulite creams.
- In this study, the efficacy of a cream containing the combination of all three actives was tried on a group of 46 women for 84 days.
- Skin texture, dermal and hypodermal structures, mechanical characteristics and superficial blood circulation were assessed using several non-invasive methods.
- At the end of the study the researchers concluded that both the orange peel appearance as well as circulation were significantly improved, in relation to placebo: "The association of the three tested active ingredients was significantly active on the 'orange peel' appearance of the skin, which is the most apparent manifestation of cellulite (53.1% at T84 versus 14.1% for the placebo)"
- "This combination of different evaluation methods resulted in the demonstration of significant activity of the anti-cellulite product versus baseline and showed its superiority versus the placebo in skin macrorelief (decrease of the "orange peel" effect) and an increase in cutaneous microcirculation"
- Clearly, cellulite creams do get absorbed (contrary to the urban myth that creams do not get absorbed) and they do work, especially if multiple natural actives are combined - especially in high concentrations.
- Source: A double-blind evaluation of the activity of an anti-cellulite product containing retinol, caffeine, and ruscogenin by a combination of several non-invasive methods.
- Abstract: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 46 healthy female volunteers in order to test an anti-cellulite product containing retinol, caffeine and ruscogenine. An evaluation of different parameters related to cellulite appearance, i.e. the skin macrorelief, the dermal and hypodermal structures, the skin mechanical characteristics, and the cutaneous flowmetry was assessed using several non-invasive methods. This combination of different evaluation methods resulted in the demonstration of significant activity of the anti-cellulite product versus baseline and showed its superiority versus the placebo in skin macrorelief (decrease of the "orange peel" effect) and an increase in cutaneous microcirculation. By using a combination of methods, it was possible to detail the activity of an anti-cellulite product and to show superiority of the product in comparison with the placebo.
- Retinol is a widely used natural anti-ageing compound that is used in many anti-ageing and anti-cellulite creams
- Now, a high quality clinical study on humans published today shows that after one year of use, just 0.1% retinol improved and prevented sun damage, reduced skin pigmentation by 84%, and crow's feet wrinkles by 44%
- Furthermore, on a separate skin tissue study by the same researchers, it was found that the 0.1% retinol boosts collagen & hyaluronic acid in the skin (of course, for faster results a higher concentration of .5% - the maximum recommended for face creams - would make more sense)
- This shows the great potential of retinol and similar retinol-like compounds in anti-ageing and skin rejuvenation, as ingredients in creams and electro-mesotherapy products