Resveratrol, pterostilbene and your skin
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipolytic, anti-ageing, cellulite
Resveratrol, found in black/purple grapes, red wine, blueberries and several other plants is one of the most well-known anti-ageing actives known today, and shares similar properties to its chemical analog, pterostilbene (also found in purple/black grapes, blueberries etc). Both have been found in numerous studies to be powerful antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and lipolytic actives and to reduce pigmentation, but above all they are known for their anti-ageing action, based on sirtuin (SIRT1) enhancement.
Pterostilbene and resveratrol cream
For all those reasons, resveratrol and pterostilbene are of great importance as active ingredients in anti-ageing, anti-cellulite, leg wellness, skin lightening and under-eye creams [the Celluence® creams are the only leg wellness / cellulite creams in the world with high concentrations of 95%+ pure resveratrol and 95%+ pure pterostilbene, plus 38x other natural anti-cellulite actives].
19+ ways Resveratrol & pterostilbene
boost skin healing and fight free radical damage, inflammation, ageing and cellulite
Protective molecular mechanisms of Resveratrol in UVR induced Skin carcinogenesis.
Abstract: Skin cancer is a major health problem worldwide. It is the most common cancer in the United States and poses a significant healthcare burden. Excessive UVR exposure is the most common cause of skin cancer. Despite various precautionary measures to avoid direct UVR exposure, the incidence of skin cancer and mortality related to it remains high. Furthermore, the current treatment options are expensive and have side effects including toxicity to normal cells. Thus, a safe and effective approach is needed to prevent and treat skin cancer. Chemopreventive strategy by using naturally occurring compounds, such as resveratrol, is a promising approach to reduce the incidence of UVR-induced skin cancer and delay its progression. This review highlights the current body of evidence related to chemopreventive role of resveratrol and its molecular mechanisms in UVR induced skin carcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Phytochemicals in regulating fatty acid β-oxidation: Potential underlying mechanisms and their involvement in obesity and weight loss.
Abstract: Excessive accumulation of fat as the result of more energy intake and less energy expenditure is known as obesity. Lipids are essential components in the human body and are vital for maintaining homeostasis and physiological as well as cellular metabolism. Fatty acid synthesis and catabolism (by fatty acid oxidation) are normal part of basic fuel metabolism in animals. Fatty acids are degraded in the mitochondria by a biochemical process called β-oxidation in which two-carbon fragments are produced in each cycle. The increase in fatty acid β-oxidation is negatively correlated with body mass index. Although healthy life style, avoiding Western diet, dieting and strenuous exercise are the commonly used methods to lose weight, they are not considered a permanent solution in addition to risk attenuation of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Pharmacotherapy offers benefits of weight loss by altering the satiety and lowering absorption of fat from the food; however, its side effects may outweigh the benefits of weight loss. Alternatively, dietary phytochemicals and natural health products offer great potential as an efficient weight loss strategy by modulating lipid metabolism and/or increasing BMR and thermogenesis. Specifically, polyphenols such as citrus flavonoids, green tea epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, capsaicin and curcumin, have been reported to increase lipolysis and induce fatty acid β-oxidation through modulation of hormone sensitive lipase, acetyl-coA carboxylase, carnitine acyl transferase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1. In this review article, we discuss selected phytochemicals in relation to their integrated functionalities and specific mechanisms for weight loss.
SIRT1 Protects Against Systemic Sclerosis-related Pulmonary Fibrosis by Decreasing Pro-inflammatory and Pro-fibrotic Processes.
Abstract: Pulmonary fibrosis is the leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase with known anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activity in the liver, kidney and skin. The role of SIRT1 in SSc-related pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. In the present work, we determined that the expression of SIRT1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of SSc patients with pulmonary fibrosis is lower than that in SSc patients without pulmonary fibrosis. In in vivo studies of Bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice, SIRT1 activation with Resveratrol reduced collagen production when it was administered either prophylactically during the inflammatory stage or after the development of fibrosis. Furthermore, SIRT1 activation or overexpression inhibited TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in vitro in human fetal lung fibroblasts, depletion of SIRT1 in fibroblasts enhanced inflammation, and these effects were related to changes in the acetylation of NF-κB. In addition, SIRT1 activation or exogenous overexpression inhibited collagen production in vitro, and these manipulations also inhibited fibrosis via inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3 and mTOR signaling. Taken together, our results show that a loss of SIRT1 may participate in the pathogenesis of SSc-related pulmonary fibrosis, and that SIRT1 activation is an effective treatment for both the early (inflammatory) and late (fibrotic) stages of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, SIRT1 may be a promising therapeutic target in the management of SSc-related pulmonary fibrosis.
Antiobesity effects of resveratrol: which tissues are involved?
Abstract: The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in recent decades and is reaching epidemic proportions. The current options for overweight and obesity management are energy restriction and physical activity. However, compliance with these treatments is frequently poor and less successful than expected. Therefore, the scientific community is interested in active biomolecules, which may be useful in body weight management. Among them, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) has generated great interest as an antiobesity agent. The focus of this report is the mechanisms of action of resveratrol on several tissues (i.e., white and brown adipose tissues, liver, and skeletal muscle). Resveratrol blunts fat accumulation through decreasing adipogenesis and/or de novo lipogenesis in white adipose tissue. The effects on lipolysis are controversial. Regarding brown adipose tissue, resveratrol increases the capacity for adaptive thermogenesis. As far as liver and skeletal muscle is concerned, resveratrol increases lipid oxidation in both tissues. Therefore, in rodents, there is a general consensus concerning the effect of resveratrol on reducing body fat accumulation. By contrast, in humans, the studies are scarce, and no clear antiobesity action has been revealed so far.
Chronic topical application of resveratrol accelerates wound healing...
...with improved epidermis, collagen deposition and improved vascularization of wound beds in young skin, due to stimulation of the AMPK pathway, the key mediator of wound healing. In aged skin, however, only metformin, a much stronger caloric restriction mimetic than resveratrol, was effective (in aged skin, AMPK pathway is inhibited, correlating with impaired vasculature and reduced healing ability)
[Source: Anti-aging pharmacology in cutaneous wound healing: effects of metformin, resveratrol, and rapamycin by local application]
Resveratrol fights MITOCHONDRIAl-dysfunction related CONDITIONS...
...by protecting mitochondria from oxidative stress, by helping regulate their metabolism and biogenesis and by modulating cell apoptosis due to mitochondrial dysfunction [Source: Dietary Polyphenols and Mitochondrial Function: Role in Health and Disease]
Resveratrol, together with genistein and EGCG, inhibits preadipocyte differentiation...
...at low dosages in an additive manner (but not synergistically). The combination reduces levels of PPAR-gamma and C/EBP-alpha the two key preadipocyte differentiation regulators. The combination also reduced FABP4 and perilipin, two PPAR-γ/C/EBP-α downstream molecules. The individual compounds had no anti-adipogenic effect at low concentrations.
[Source: Antiadipogenic Effects and Mechanisms of Combinations of Genistein, Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, and/or Resveratrol in Preadipocytes]
Resveratrol decreases lipid accumulation in adipocytes...
...by inhibiting PPAR-gamma, C/EBPs and their target genes (FAS, aP2, SCD-1, and LPL) Resveratrol, the phytochemical found in red wine, berries and other foods and considered responsible for their anti-ageing qualities, is known to trigger fat release from fat cells (lipolysis). Resveratrol exerts both it's anti-ageing and it's anti-obesity effect by activating a protein called sirtuin (SIRT1). SIRT1 is a major target of anti-ageing strategies and now scientists have found that SIRT1 also stimulates fat release.
Sirtuin, and subsequently resveratrol, does that by: increasing another protein found in fat cells, called ATGL. ATGL (adipocyte trigluceride lipase) is well-known for it's stimulation of fat release; inhibiting a protein called PPAR-gamma, one of the most important triggers of fat accumulation
Now that the mechanism of action of resveratrol is clarified, applications of this natural, healthful chemical on anti-cellulite and anti-aging creams is further warranted.
Abstract: To investigate whether sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) could affect the transcriptional expression of the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene, we treated porcine adipocytes with the general Sirt1 activator resveratrol (RES) with the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) or a knockdown of Sirt1 by Sirt1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The RES (50 μM) activated Sirt1 gene expression and increased ATGL gene expression and glycerol release (P < 0.01). The Sirt1 inhibitor NAM or knockdown with Sirt1 siRNA further proved that the ATGL mRNA abundances were decreased (P < 0.05) after inhibition with Sirt1 in adipocytes. Furthermore, we found the opposite Sirt1 regulation pattern for PPARγ to that of ATGL in adipocytes. In summary, Sirt1 regulates the transcriptional expression of ATGL in adipocytes, and PPARγ appears to have an important role in this process. These results add to our understanding of the role of Sirt1 in adipose mobilization.
[Source: Sirtuin1 affects the transcriptional expression of adipose triglyceride lipase in porcine adipocytes]
Resveratrol fights fat accumulation...
...by inhibiting PPAR-gamma, FAS, LPL and other adipogenic factors.
Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skin, grape products, and peanuts as well as red wine, has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on adipocytes. The anti-obesity effects of grape skin extracts were investigated by measuring proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of grape skin ethanol extracts on cell proliferation was detected by the MTS assay. The morphological changes and degree of adipogenesis of preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells were measured by Oil Red-O staining assay. Treatment with extracts of resveratrol-amplified grape skin decreased lipid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity without affecting 3T3-L1 cell viability. Grape skin extract treatment resulted in significantly attenuated expression of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins, and their target genes (FAS, aP2, SCD-1, and LPL). These results indicate that resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts may be useful for preventing obesity by regulating lipid metabolism.
[Source: Anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation]
Resveratrol fights ageing by boosting the activity of SIRT1
Resveratrol is a well-known anti-ageing and slimming natural compound and is one of the molecules associated with the anti-ageing effects of red wine (the "French paradox").
Now scientists in Hong Kong have found that resveratrol reduces stem cell decline and significantly extends life span in mice suffering from premature ageing (progeria), by helping bind a protein called Lamin A onto SIRT1, the "longevity" gene. By boosting the activity of the longevity gene, resveratrol helps fight ageing.
Resveratrol is an ideal anti-ageing and anti-cellulite cream active ingredient. It is more and more widely used as an anti-ageing supplement and is an ideal ingredient in anti-ageing creams. In addition, resveratrol has been shown to halt the growth of new fat cells (adipogenesis), on it's own and when combined with other natural substances, such as the phytoestrogen genistein.
Abnormal splicing of LMNA gene or aberrant processing of prelamin A results in progeroid syndrome. Here we show that lamin A interacts with and activates SIRT1. SIRT1 exhibits reduced association with nuclear matrix (NM) and decreased deacetylase activity in the presence of progerin or prelamin A, leading to rapid depletion of adult stem cells (ASCs) in Zmpste24(-/-) mice. Resveratrol enhances the binding between SIRT1 and A-type lamins to increases its deacetylase activity. Resveratrol treatment rescues ASC decline, slows down body weight loss, improves trabecular bone structure and mineral density, and significantly extends the life span in Zmpste24(-/-) mice. Our data demonstrate lamin A as an activator of SIRT1 and provide a mechanistic explanation for the activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol. The link between conserved SIRT1 longevity pathway and progeria suggests a stem cell-based and SIRT1 pathway-dependent therapeutic strategy for progeria.
[Source: Resveratrol rescues SIRT1-dependent adult stem cell decline and alleviates progeroid features in laminopathy-based progeria]
resveratrol protects fat cells from inflammation, helps fight cellulite
Dietary phytochemicals called polyphenols are known potent antioxidants that protect body tissues from free radical damage and consequent inflammation. Inflammation and oxidative damage are key components of cellulite, as well as diabetes and several other so-called civilisation diseases, such as heart disease and arthritis.
Recent research has now looked into 28 polyphenols (such as hesperidin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and curcumin) and concluded that those polyphenols protect fat cells from both oxidative damage and inflammation, by reducing inflammatory hormones, such as IL-6.
This practically means that orally taken polyphenols (either as foods or as supplements) can be used in the fight against fat tissue inflammation for the prevention of diabetes and cellulite. Polyphenols may also be used with local application in the fight against cellulite as active ingredients in an anti-cellulite cream. Naturally, the more of those polyphenols are present in the cream the better results are to be expected, due to a synergistic effect of using multiple ingredients.
Abstract: "Obesity has been associated with a marked risk of metabolic diseases and requires therapeutic strategies. Changes in redox status with increased oxidative stress in adipose tissue have been linked with obesity-related disorders. Thus, the biological effect of antioxidants such as polyphenols is of high interest. We aimed to measure antioxidant capacities of 28 polyphenols representative of main dietary phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and curcuminoids. Then, 14 molecules were selected for the evaluation of their effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress. Analysis of reducing and free radical-scavenging capacities of compounds revealed antioxidant properties related to their structure, with higher activities for flavonoids such as quercetin and epicatechin. Their effects on preadipocytes' viability also depended on their structure, dose and time of exposure. Interestingly, most of the compounds exhibited a protective effect on preadipocytes exposed to oxidative stress, by reversing H₂O₂-induced anti-proliferative action and reactive oxygen species production. Polyphenols also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on preadipocytes exposed to H₂O₂ by reducing IL-6 secretion. Importantly, such antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed in co-exposition (polyphenol and prooxidant during 24 h) or pretreatment (polyphenol during 24 h, then prooxidant for 24 h) conditions. Moreover, compounds protected erythrocytes from AAPH radical-induced lysis. Finally, these results led to demonstrate that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols may depend on structure, dose, time of exposure and cell conditioning with oxidative stress. Such findings should be considered for a better understanding of polyphenols' benefits in strategies aiming to prevent obesity-related diseases."
[Source: Evaluation of antioxidant properties of major dietary polyphenols and their protective effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress]