Raspberry ketone, leg wellness & cellulite
Raspberry ketone, (also known as frambinone, rheosmin and 4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one) stimulates fat release, inhibits fat accumulation, fights fat tissue inflammation and inhibits melanogenesis. It is therefore of great importance as an active ingredient in anti-cellulite, leg wellness, contouring, skin brightening and under-eye creams.
RASPBERRY KETONE CELLULITE CREAMS, BY CELLUENCE®
The raspberry ketone used for the Celluence® cellulite creams is of the highest quality and of >95% purity, i.e. it comprises more than 95% active molecule, in a natural, super-fast absorption matrix. We are extremely proud to feature a high quality, highly purified raspberry ketone in our formulations, together with multiple other natural active ingredients, for maximum synergy and effectiveness. No other cellulite creams offer ALL the important anti-cellulite / leg wellness ingredients, in one package (learn how our creams differ from any other cellulite formulation).
RASPBERRY KETONE: Papers & articles
(Disclaimer: please note that the information and the research presented on this page is for informational purposes only and does not constitute efficacy claims for the Celluence® creams, neither does it constitute or aim to replace medical advice)
- Source: Effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans.
- Abstract: "Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on activation. We recently reported that topical application of capsaicin increases facial skin elasticity and promotes hair growth by increasing dermal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production through activation of sensory neurons in mice and humans. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound contained in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), has a structure similar to that of capsaicin. Thus, it is possible that RK activates sensory neurons, thereby increasing skin elasticity and promoting hair growth by increasing dermal IGF-I production. In the present study, we examined this possibility in mice and humans. RK, at concentrations higher than 1 microM, significantly increased CGRP release from dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) isolated from wild-type (WT) mice and this increase was completely reversed by capsazepine, an inhibitor of vanilloid receptor-1 activation. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased dermal IGF-I levels at 30 min after application in WT mice, but not in CGRP-knockout mice. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I at dermal papillae in hair follicles and promoted hair re-growth in WT mice at 4 weeks after the application. When applied topically to the scalp and facial skin, 0.01% RK promoted hair growth in 50.0% of humans with alopecia (n=10) at 5 months after application and increased cheek skin elasticity at 2 weeks after application in 5 females (p<0.04). These observations strongly suggest that RK might increase dermal IGF-I production through sensory neuron activation, thereby promoting hair growth and increasing skin elasticity."
- Source: Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo depigmenting activity of raspberry ketone from Rheum officinale
- Abstract: "Melanogenesis inhibition by raspberry ketone (RK) from Rheum officinale was investigated both in vitro in cultivated murine B16 melanoma cells and in vivo in zebrafish and mice. In B16 cells, RK inhibited melanogenesis through a post-transcriptional regulation of tyrosinase gene expression, which resulted in down regulation of both cellular tyrosinase activity and the amount of tyrosinase protein, while the level of tyrosinase mRNA transcription was not affected. In zebrafish, RK also inhibited melanogenesis by reduction of tyrosinase activity. In mice, application of a 0.2% or 2% gel preparation of RK applied to mouse skin significantly increased the degree of skin whitening within one week of treatment. In contrast to the widely used flavoring properties of RK in perfumery and cosmetics, the skin-whitening potency of RK has been demonstrated in the present study. Based on our findings reported here, RK would appear to have high potential for use in the cosmetics industry."
- Source: Rheosmin, a naturally occurring phenolic compound inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression in RAW264.7 cells by blocking NF-κB activation pathway
- Abstract: "Inflammation is part of the host defense mechanism against harmful matters and injury; however, aberrant inflammation is associated to the development of chronic disease such as cancer. Raspberry ketone is a natural phenolic compound. It is used in perfumery, in cosmetics, and as a food additive to impart a fruity odor. In this study, we evaluated whether rheosmin, a phenolic compound isolated from pine needles regulates the expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Rheosmin dose-dependently inhibited NO and PGE2 production and also blocked LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. Rheosmin potently inhibited the translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus by IκB degradation following IκB-α phosphorylation. This result shows that rheosmin inhibits NF-κB activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that rheosmin inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression in RAW264.7 cells by blocking NF-κB activation pathway."
- Source: Raspberry Ketone Increases Both Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Oxidation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
- Abstract: "Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of the red raspberry. The dietary administration of RK to male mice has been reported to prevent high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and to increase lipolysis in white adipocytes. To elucidate a possible mechanism for the antiobesity action of RK, its effects on the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 were investigated. Treatment with 10 µM of RK increased lipolysis significantly in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. An immunoassay showed that RK increased both the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, an adipocytokine mainly expressed and secreted by adipose tissue. In addition, treatment with 10 µM of RK increased the fatty acid oxidation and suppressed lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings suggest that RK holds great promise as an herbal medicine since its biological activities alter the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes."
- Raspberry extract raspberry ketone (also known as rheosmin and frambinone) has been in the news for years regarding it's fat reduction benefits. The positive news was based around scientific studies which proved and explained it's potential in fighting fat and obesity, while the negative news revolved around exaggerated claims made by fraudulent practitioners and supplement manufacturers which hyped-up raspberry ketone benefits beyond all reason.
- Regardless of the hype and exaggeration though, the fact remains that raspberry ketone does have an effect on fat cells and more and more studies come to prove this.
- In a research paper published yesterday, raspberry ketone was shown to "suppress adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner and to suppress the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα)".
- This in plain English means that raspberry ketone blocks key proteins involved in fat cell growth and halts the growth and maturation of new fat cells (contrary to the urban myth, we constantly produce new fat cells to replace "dying" ones).
- Furthermore, "in mature adipocytes" raspberry ketone was shown to "increase the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B)."
- Again, in plain English, this means that raspberry ketone stimulates fat cells to release fat out of the cell, which can then be taken into the general circulation for oxidation ("fat burning") in the muscles and other organs.
- So, in summary, raspberry ketone "attacks" adipose (fat) cells in two ways:
- It does not allow new, "baby" fat cells to grow and become fully functional, mature fat cells and stops them from accumulating fat
- It encourages fully grown, mature fat cells to actually release fat. When a fat cell releases all it's fat content it undergoes "apoptosis" or "programmed cell death" and dies off.
- The combination of growth inhibition in new fat cells and fat release and apoptosis in existing fat cells amounts to what most people simply call "breaking down the fat"!
- The authors of the study conclude that "these findings suggest that raspberry ketone holds great promise for an herbal medicine with the biological activities altering the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes."
- And we could add to that, that if applied locally as an anti-cellulite cream active ingredient, raspberry ketone also holds great promise in the fight against localised adiposity and cellulite.
- Source: Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
- Abstract: "Context: Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of red raspberry. The dietary intake of RK has been reported to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism in vivo and human studies. Objective: To elucidate a possible mechanism for anti-obese actions of RK, the effects of RK on the adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. Materials and methods: 3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated from day 2 to day 8 of differentiation and mature adipocytes for 24 h on day 12 with 1, 10, 20, and 50 μM of RK. Triacylglycerols were assessed by spectrophotometry and gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: Treatment of adipocytes with RK suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. RK suppressed the expression of major genes involved in the adipogenesis pathway including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), which led to further down-regulation of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-2 (aP2). In addition, treatment with 10 μM of RK also reduced mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC1), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). In mature adipocytes, RK increased the transcriptional activities of genes involved in lipolysis and the oxidative pathways including adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1B (CPT1B). Discussion and conclusion: These findings suggest that RK holds great promise for an herbal medicine with the biological activities altering the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes."
- Raspberry ketone (also known as frambinone and rheosmin) is an aromatic compound found all red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) which is extensively used in perfumery. It's chemical structure is similar to that of zingerone, a ginger extract which reduces obesity. It is also similar to that of capsaicin (the chemical that gives hot chili peppers their "burning" quality), to synephrine (a substance found in orange peel and known to help reduce fat and fluid retention) and evodiamine (another fat loss ingredient). All these chemicals, including raspberry ketone, interact with fat cells and induce fat loss via similar mechanisms.
- In 2004 a group of Japanese researchers examined the anti-obesity action of raspberry ketone in mice. To test the effect on obesity, the researchers fed mice in one experiment a high-fat diet including 0.5, 1, or 2% of raspberry ketone for 10 weeks. In another experiment mice were given a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then fed the same high-fat diet containing 1% of raspberry ketone for the next 5 weeks.
- After 11 weeks the results were rather amazing. Raspberry ketone did indeed prevent the high-fat-diet-induced fat gain in the first experiment, and decreased the fat accumulation produced by 6 weeks of high fat diet in the second experiment. In addition, raspberry ketone decreased the amounts of fat accumulated in the liver caused by the high fat diet, thereby improving fatty liver. The researchers concluded that this obesity preventing and reducing effect was due to the potentiation of the norepinephrine-induced lipolysis (i.e. fat breakdown) in fat cells.
- Norepinephrine is produced by the body when we exercise, therefore the best time to consume raspberries or apply a raspberry ketone-rich cellulite cream on areas with excess fat, is immediately before and/or after exercise. This is when the raspberry ketone can really perform it’s magic.
- In addition to raspberry ketone, raspberries and other berry fruits contain several other substances that help prevent and improve various health conditions, as well as overweight, cellulite, skin looseness and fluid retention, and are one of the most healthful foods you can eat. They offer lots of fibre and antioxidants and very few calories, making them very "dense" nutritionally.
- You may literally consume as many fresh berries as you wish without fearing weight gain. In fact by doing so you will lose weight, because you will eat less of the calorie-dense foods that lead to fat accumulation and stop you from losing weight. The same principle applies to green vegetables, with the only difference that green vegetables are even better than berries as they contain almost no calories at all.
- In addition to eating lots of berry fruits you may use raspberry ketone in a different way: by applying it on your skin in the form of a raspberry ketone-rich cellulite cream, immediately before or after exercise when noradrenaline (a.k.a. norepinephrine) levels are high.
- However, you should know that food must not be eaten up to three hours before exercise as the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin will negate any benefits raspberry ketone and exercise have to offer. Food consumption immediately after one hour or more of vigorous exercise is absolutely fine and will not reduce the results of either exercise or raspberry ketone.
- Source: Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone
- Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024320505001281
- Excerpt: "Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one; RK) is a major aromatic compound of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The structure of RK is similar to the structures of capsaicin and synephrine, compounds known to exert anti-obese actions and alter the lipid metabolism. The present study was performed to clarify whether RK helps prevent obesity and activate lipid metabolism in rodents. To test the effect on obesity, our group designed the following in vivo experiments: 1) mice were fed a high-fat diet including 0.5, 1, or 2% of RK for 10 weeks; 2) mice were given a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and subsequently fed the same high-fat diet containing1% RK for the next 5 weeks. RK prevented the high-fat-diet-induced elevations in body weight and the weights of the liver and visceral adipose tissues (epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric). RK also decreased these weights and hepatic triacylglycerol content after they had been increased by a high-fat diet. RK significantly increased norepinephrine-induced lipolysis associated with the translocation of hormone-sensitive lipase from the cytosol to lipid droplets in rat epididymal fat cells. In conclusion, RK prevents and improves obesity and fatty liver. These effects appear to stem from the action of RK in altering the lipid metabolism, or more specifically, in increasing norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in white adipocytes."
- Raspberry ketone (written without an "s" at the end - the plural "raspberry ketones" is incorrect), is a chemical originally sourced from raspberries, also known as frambinone, rheosmin and 4-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone.
- Raspberry ketone is a lipolytic (fat-releasing) active, similar in structure to capsaicin and synephrine, which are also known for their lipolytic actions, and it has been found to "increase norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in white adipocytes", according to one study. This, in plain English, means that raspberry ketone does not act on it's own directly on fat cells, but that it rather magnifies the effect of noradrenaline / norepinephrine on fat release from fat cells.
- The best way to secrete noradrenaline is to exercise, especially at high intensity. Therefore the best way to use raspberry ketone is to take it before a high intensity workout, in the form of a supplement or in the form of a highly concentrated cream (usually an anti-cellulite cream) that contains it. You don't get much raspberry ketone by eating raspberries (which, however, have lots of other healthful ingredients, such as polyphenols).
- Ideally, you would like to combine raspberry ketone with other lipolytic actives, such as forskolin, sclareolide, caffeine etc., either in the form of a multi-ingredient anti-cellulite cream or in the form of supplements, for maximum synergy (always check with your healthcare professional before taking any supplement or any combination of different supplements).
- Obviously, no noradrenaline means no effect of raspberry ketone on fat cells. This practically means that if you take raspberry ketone and sit on your sofa watching satellite TV, nothing will happen (you don't secrete much noradrenaline when you slouch on your couch)...
- Having said all that, it is important to state that raspberry ketone is not the miracle supplement that is portrayed to be on misleading websites all over the internet. And no, it will not help you lose "20 pounds in 7 days" or anything similar. Anyone who believes such claims or "before and after photos" that feature a huge beer belly "before" and a ripped body with a six pack "after", deserves to be ripped off...
- So in a nutshell, raspberry ketone / frambinone / rheosmin can be of help in reducing local fat and cellulite or in losing weight overall, especially if combined with high intensity exercise and other lipolytic active ingredients, but it is not the miracle supplement thousands of "shady" websites make it to be.