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All face and body Meso-CRF® treatments cost the same: £145 for the first session and also £145/session thereafter, if you buy a course of 6x (£135/session for courses of 12x). Introductory sessions comprise assessment, consultation and full treatment (what to expect on your first treatment). The Celluence® creams are the only creams in the world with a total of 40x high quality, natural anti-cellulite active ingredients in high concentrations, for maximum results.
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Escin (aescin) is one of the three actives contained in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) extract responsible for it's well-known action on chronic venous insufficiency (clinical water retention / oedema), haemorrhoids, post-operative oedema and cellulite (water retention is an important aspect of cellulite).
Chronic venous insufficiency is a disease from which "10–15% of adult men and 20–25% of women suffer. It reflects more than a ‘cosmetic problem’ because many patients require hospital and/or surgical treatment and this disease leads to a high degree of suffering and a high economic cost for society".
Furthermore, cellulite affects more than 80% of women above the age of 30 and although cellulite is only a cosmetic condition, the majority of women seek solutions on how to prevent or reduce it.
There is plenty of scientific literature supporting the effectiveness and safety of escin, one of which found it has the same efficacy in oedema as compression therapy, after just 8 weeks of treatment - without the inconvenience of compression bandages / garments.
In another double-blind, placebo-controlled study "oral treatment for 2–8 weeks with 100-150mg/day of escin led to a significant reduction in leg volume and symptoms (pain, fatigue, sensation of tension, itching) compared to placebo."
Additionally, escin is very well tolerated and has been used in massive studies with tens thousands of patients with excellent results and safety.
According to a review of all the major research papers on escin, this natural chemical possesses "clearcut anti-oedematous, anti-inflammatory and venotonic properties" via a "wide ranging mechanism of therapeutic activity".
Specifically, escin allows improved response to calcium ions which raises venous tension and contractions (i.e. better vein tone); it releases the prostaglandine PGF2-alpha from veins; it antagonises histamine; it prevents leukocyte activation / inflammation and prevents hypoxia-related reactions, such as reduction in cell energy levels / ATP.
Escin also inhibits the enzymes elastase and hyaluronidase and thereby protects elastin and hyaluronic acid from damage. As a result, blood vessels are "sealed", preventing the leakage of water into the tissues and the consequent water retention / oedema.
In summary, escin is a valuable, safe and effective natural vein-toning and circulation-enhancing active against water retention, oedema and cellulite. Creams with a high concentration of purified escin, especially in combination with esculoside and proanthocyanidin (the other two actives in horse chestnut) and with other synergistic actives, can provide valuable help with cellulite, heavy / painful / tense legs and water retention.
Source: Aescin: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic profile, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11529685
Excerpt: "In inflammatory conditions, as well as during blood stasis, resulting in decreased oxygen supply, a reduction in ATP content may occur due to lowered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This results in a cascade of metabolic events: release of prostaglandins and PAF, neutrophil recruitment, adherence and activation, all leading to venous stasis and oedema in the case of varicose disease. Aescin can well antagonize the reduction in ATP content and increased phospholipase A2 responsible for the release of precursors of inflammatory mediators. There is, furthermore, a reduced neutrophil adherence/activation, all resulting in the protection of veins and reduced oedema... The therapeutic efficacy, as shown in the international literature, includes studies published in top ranked journals, and is well supported by a large number of randomized controlled studies. In one trial aescin was shown to be as effective as compression therapy as an alternative to medical treatment for CVI."
Myleene Klass, known for her fantastic figure, was recently featured in the news, sharing her advice on how to have maintain a firm body
Myleene was quoted of saying "I like high-intensity stuff - boxing, skipping which is fantastic for burning fat", to which I could not agree more. The same effort made on a high intensity workout have a higher effect on your metabolism than a low intensity workout, such as yoga or walking, even if the same amount of calories spent.
Myleene also suggested "lateral squat jumps to increase the leanness of your legs", which, however, is wrong. It is physically impossible to lose fat locally by exercising a specific muscle.
This means that lateral leg squats may be a good idea to tone up the muscles of your legs, but they won't do anything to "dramatically improve the leanness" (or fattiness) of your legs - not more than exercising your arms or other body parts for that matter.
Local fat reduction on the legs or anywhere else can only happen with a good localised treatment and/or cream, always in combination with diet and exercise, of course.
Source: Secrets of an A-list body: How to get Myleene Klass's fantastic legs, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3252634/Secrets-list-body-Myleene-Klass-s-fantastic-legs.html
Water retention on the legs and heavy legs due to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) affects a large proportion of women, impairing their occupational capacity and quality of life and also contributing to the aesthetic condition of cellulite.
Compression tights and other garments are popular aids against CVI of the legs but most women dislike using them, especially in the summer, when water retention is at its worst.
Nutritional supplements based on rutin, hesperidin, escin, esculoside and several other natural extracts are also used, but are not very popular due to them not being very well known by the public or being perceived as less effective than the strong mechanical compression offered by compression tights.
However, a study which compared the efficacy in oedema reduction and the safety of compression stockings (class II) and the horse chestnut seed extract escin (100mg/day), has found that the two methods are of equivalent effectiveness after 12 weeks. Escin, however, does not burden the patient with the discomfort of the compression tights, offering a superior quality of life.
Specifically the randomised, partially blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel study involved 240 patients with chronic venous insufficiency treated over a period of 12 weeks. At the conclusion of the study lower leg volume decreased on average by 44 mL with escin and 47 mL with compression therapy, while it increased by 9.8 mL with placebo after 12 weeks of therapy.
The researchers concluded that "Significant oedema reductions were achieved by HCSE (p = 0.005) and compression (p = 0.002) compared to placebo, and the two therapies were shown to be equivalent (p = 0.001). Both HCSE and compression therapy were well tolerated and no serious treatment-related events were reported."
Escin, together with it's related horse chestnut extract esculoside are effective and safe plant chemicals against water retention - and consequently cellulite - and are ideal as ingredients in nutritional supplement and anti-cellulite / heavy leg creams.
Source: Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8569363
It has long been observed that increased fat intake in teens leads to increased body height without human growth hormone, but the mechanism by which occurs has not become known.
However, a recent study has shown that fat cells secrete growth factors which stimulate bone growth, and therefore, body height.
Specifically, scientists have cultured fat cells and then added an extract of their secretions to a metatarsal bone culture. The result was significantly increased metatarsal bone elongation which was attributed to the increased expression of "growth and differentiation factor 5" (GDF)-5 and the consequent stimulation of the GDF-5 receptor (bone morphogenetic protein receptor; BMPR1).
In conclusion, the researchers state that "adipocytes may stimulate bone growth and suggest an additional explanation to the growth-without-growth-hormone phenomenon", that is observed with increased fat intake in teens.
Source: Growth without growth hormone: can growth and differentiation factor 5 be the mediator, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26393787
Epilactose is a non-digestible lactose derivative that is formed in small quantities when heating milk. It possesses prebiotic properties, i.e. it helps the growth and function of beneficial (probiotic) bacteria in the gut.
In a recent study it has been found that epilactose prevents fat cell size increase, fat accumulation and weight gain caused by a high fat diet, without affecting food intake.
It was found that epilactose achieves this by boosting thermogenesis, i.e. the oxidation of fat for the production of heat, rather than usable energy, in the muscles and fat cells.
UCP-1, the protein that causes cells to burn fat for heat (thermogenesis) was increased by a factor of 2x in the muscles and by a factor of 1.3x in brown fat cells. Furthermore, epilactose also reduces fat tissue inflammation caused by the high fat diet.
The researchers attribute this change to propionic acid, a short chain fatty acid secreted by bacteria in the gut that metabolise epilactose (epilactose is a sugar that can not be digested by animals and therefore it is metablised by bacteria in the gut; bacteria use the epilactose for energy and secrete propionic acid in return).
In summary, the researchers concluded that epilactose increases UCP-1 in muscles and brown adipose tissue and enhances whole-body energy expenditure, leading to effective prevention of obesity and metabolic disorders.
At the moment epilactose can not be found as a supplement or food additive, but due to it's prebiotic action and documented promise as a fat loss agent, it may become a popular potential supplement in the near future.
Source: Supplemental epilactose prevents metabolic disorders through uncoupling protein-1 induction in the skeletal muscle of mice fed high-fat diets, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/26395755/
It has been well-known for some time that certain adenoviruses can cause obesity in humans, as well as animals.
According to a paper published recently, three human adenovirus types, Ad5, Ad36 and Ad37 are linked to increased adiposity and weight gain, especially in children.
One of them, Ad36 is the most extensively studied adipogenic adenovirus with 30% of overweight/obese children and adults carying the virus. However, about 15-20% of lean individuals also carry the virus, which means that not all people are affected: some are more vulnerable than others, depending on their genetics and the state of their immune system.
Ad36 is known to cause fat gain in at least three different ways: it increases cell membrane glucose receptors, leading to absorption of glucose by fat cells: it increases fatty acid synthase, which converts the glucose to fatty acids inside the fat cells; it increases PPAR-γ, resulting in the differentiation (conversion) of stem cells into adipocytes (fat cells)
Unfortunately, at the moment there is no known cure to mitigate the effects of obesity-causing adenoviruses, other than diet & exercise, even though those viruses affect at least 15% of the obese and overweight and clearly more research is needed.
Source: Role of adenoviruses in obesity, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352001
Caffeine is widely used in anti-cellulite creams due to it's multiple lipolytic action.
This action of caffeine makes most people wonder, "if caffeine helps break down fat at a local level, then why can't I take it by mouth (in the form of coffee or energy drinks such as Red Bull) to lose weight or reduce cellulite throughout my body?"
The answer is very simple: caffeine cannot help you lose weight at a systemic (whole body) level, simply because it only helps with the breakdown and release of fat from fat cells. It DOES not stimulate fat oxidation (burning) on it's own (although it enhances the action of other thermogenic chemicals).
So, by using only caffeine and not diet and exercise, the fat released from one fat cell simply returns to another eventually, UNLESS it is "burned" due to diet and/or exercise. This is the reason caffeine cannot be used for whole body fat loss or whole body cellulite reduction.
Another limitation of high doses of caffeine taken orally for whole body weight loss is the effect of such high doses on the nervous system and the stimulation followed by exhaustion, that they cause.
Finally, caffeine's action on the kidney stimulates the loss of minerals and water, leading to dehydration. Dehydration impairs not only lymphatic drainage but several other functions in the body.
So, in summary, feel free to use caffeine locally, as part of an anti-cellulite cream, but avoid more than 2-3 cups of coffee, tea or green tea a day.
Caffeine is a well-established lipolytic plant chemical and for this reason it is used in most anti-cellulite and topical fat loss creams.
Caffeine was known to have two effects that lead to lipolysis (fat breakdown in fat cells): it inhibitsdenosine and it also inhibits PDE3/4.
Now scientists have discovered that caffeine also acts direct on fat cells themselves by suppressing their differentiation (maturation) and division (mitosis) and by inhibiting the expression of key chemicals C/EBPα and PPARγ.
The multiple ways by which caffeine helps reduce fat at a local level make it a valuable active in the fight against cellulite, as part of an anti-cellulite cream.
Source: Caffeine inhibits adipogenesis through modulation of mitotic clonal expansion and the AKT/GSK3 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26350746
It has been observed since many decades now that women who smoke have more cellulite, despite smoking restricting fat accumulation and weight gain, which is a paradox, given that cellulite is partially caused by fat accumulation.
On the other hand, it is also well known that smoking causes vasocontriction and thereby poor circulation and also increases levels of angiotensin II, another risk factor for cellulite. Furthermore, smoking contributes to free radical damage on collagen and blood vessels.
Now scientists have discovered that smoking also reduces circulating levels of adiponectin. Adiponectin is an adipokine, i.e. a hormone that is secreted by fat cells, which helps control fat tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue inflammation is an important cause of cellulite (and diabetes type II, by the way). So by reducing levels of adiponectin, tobacco smoking contributes in yet another way towards cellulite development (and diabetes type II)...
Stoping smoking and following a diet rich in vegetables, oily fish and fruits will boost adiponectin and help prevent the formation of cellulite and (very) gradually reduce it. For faster cellulite reduction a good anti-cellulite treatment is necessary.
Certain natural actives contained in some anti-cellulite creams are also known to boost adiponectin levels and those actives can indeed help prevent cellulite. But applying such creams, or even having treatments, is not a good reason to also continue smoking, as smoking contributes towards cellulite via at least three other known mechanisms and also because smoking is detrimental to overall health.
Source: Decreased secretion of adiponectin through its intracellular accumulation in adipose tissue during tobacco smoke exposure, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26075006